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Turabian Citation Guide: How to Cite in Turabian Style

Made famous by Kate Turabian to help college and high school students with citation challenges, Turabian format is a simplified version of Chicago citing style. Commonly used for essays, research papers, theses, and even dissertations, this style format has less complex rules because it is not meant for publishing as of yet.

In this handy guide, we will review the Turabian 9th edition, so one can see what should be noted and what rules are obligatory. We know that even with professional assistance, writing formats are still difficult to comprehend, therefore, we offer free Turabian citation generator online that can help you with most source types.
Before we continue with in-text citation examples, it is important to consider that the Turabian style, like the Chicago manual of style, implements two different quoting patterns, depending on the subject.

“Notes and Bibliography” pattern is recommended for Literature, Arts, and History. What makes it different from the usual citation style is use of superscript numbered footnotes or endnotes after each source quoted. It is used to add flexibility, identification, and clearer reference to Bibliography entries.

“Author-Date” is a usual parenthetical pattern where the author’s last name is followed by the publishing year (Andrews 2011). It is mostly used in Physics, Natural Sciences, and Sociology. As for Bibliography, it is sorted alphabetically.

Turabian Style In-Text Citing: Footnotes, Notes and Parenthetical Rules

Let us review Turabian citation examples for both cases to make it clear.
We will start with “Author-Date” style first, so one does not get confused with too much information. Later on, there are examples of “Notes -Bibliography” in-text examples.

Turabian citation format example

Single book author

(Gerahty 2019, 15)

More than one author

(Call and Capwell 2015, 15-21)

More than four authors

(Larsen et al. 2010, 521)

Organization as an author

(Harvard Business School 2001, 39)

When author is unknown

Use resource title instead:

(“Shakespeare’s Imagery” 2016, 12)

Authors with same last name

(Marteen R. and Marteen N. 2016)

Two or more works by same author, same year

Identify sources by title, adding lower case letter:

(Montgomery 2016a, 312)
(Montgomery 2016b, 113)

Using multiple sources same citation

Simply use semicolon as in example of Turabian citation:

(Jackson 2019; Nilsen 2004)

No page number resource

(Rachel 2005, para. 2.42)

Unknown date source

(Clijsters n.d., 34)

Electronic sources

Turabian in-text citation for electronic sources follows the same rules as for print resources. The golden rule here is to include sufficient information in Bibliography that could help to identify specified resources. From URL specified to update and access dates, add as much as available.

Turabian Footnotes

In order to place note or footnote in a research paper writing, place superscript number for each source. Notes are placed with an indent, either as footnote at page’s bottom or as an endnote in conclusion of a document. Nevertheless, one should still implement superscript numbers with footnotes. Our Turabian citation maker provides both citation options as results are generated. Let’s take a look at Turabian format examples from Turabian citation generator:

When citing books for “Notes”, one should follow this template:

Author or editor; Title; Compiler, translator or editor (if available); Edition; Series name, including volume or number used; Published in, publisher and publication date; Citation page numbers (for footnote or endnote).

Include the author or editor’s last name and page number without a title. When citation includes more than one source, include work’s title, too.

Endnote example:

1. Andrew Jackson, Metaphors in German Poetry (London: Penguin Books, 2002),

When same page is cited in succession with no other references included:

2. Ibid.

If different page number is used for same resource, include 2Ibid., 31.

Electronic sources

Same rules are applied as for print books with the inclusion of URL and access date. See both Turabian examples in Bibliography examples.

Journal articles in print and online sources

When citing periodicals, articles, magazines, newspapers, and blogs, follow this template:

Last Name, First Name. “Article title.” Periodical title. Volume or Issue number (if available, both). Publication date. Page numbers.
Sanders, Jake. “Gender Studies in New Mexico Culture.” Social Studies Journals 13
(2004): 75-79.

In case of online journals, add URL and access date. If applicable, specify database publisher, publication city, and version of an article online.

Citing the Bible

According to the manual, one should not include the Bible in Bibliography.

For parenthetical citation, use Turabian citation generator:

(Gen. 11:2-4 [Revised Standard Version])
1 Gen 11:2-4

When making reference to whole chapters or books, it is done this way:

“When speaking of Book of Hebrews, one should remember of historical specifics…”

Turabian Bibliography Reference List: Rules and Examples

Author for printed book

Last Name, First Name. Book. City: Publisher, Year Published.
Jackson, Jane. Social Psychology Methods: Anti-bullying. Oxford Publishing, 2004.


Note number. Author’s First and Last Names, Title of Book: Subtitle of Book (Place of Publication: Publisher’s Name, Publication Date), Pages Cited.
1 Jane, Jackson, Social Psychology Methods: Anti-bullying (London: Oxford Publishing, 2004), 44.

E-book author

Kirk, James. Metaphysics: Light Particles. Los Angeles: Turner Books. Accessed April 4, 2005. https://www.site.com.


1 James Kirk, Metaphysics: Light Particles (Los Angeles: Turner Books, 2004), 34-37, accessed April 4, 2005, https://www.site.com.

More than one book author

Grand, Alfred and John Lake. How to Resolve Business Conflicts. New York: Harvard Books, 2009.
2. Alfred Grand and John Lake, How to Resolve Business Conflicts (New York: Harvard Books, 2009), 88-94.

Three authors

Gillian, Ian, John Michaels, and Warren Hayes. Polar Bear Migration. Tempte: Arizona State University, 2004.
1 Ian Gillian, John Michaels, and Wendy Clark, Polar Bear Migration (Tempe: Arizona State University, 2004), 81-92.

More than three authors

Jenkins, Andy, Greg Lake, Melissa Etheridge, Ryan Clark, and Steven Jones. Urban Life in New Mexico. Seattle: University Press, 2009.
4 Andy Jenkins et al., Urban Life in New Mexico (Seattle: University Press 2009), 88-94.

Edited book citation

Stanley, Paul, ed. How to Measure Planet Earth? New York: Research Press, 2001.
5 Paul Stanley, ed., How to Measure Planet Earth? (New York: Research Press, 2001), 83-96.

Chapter in an edited book

Turner, Tina. “Social Resources.” in Voting and Democracy Principles, edited by David Letterman and Cooper R. Clark, 134. New Jersey: Wing Books, 2002.
1 Tina Turner, “Spcoa; Resources,” in Voting and Democracy Principles, eds. David
Letterman and Cooper R. Clark (New Jersey: Wing Books, 2002), 112.

Dictionary / Encyclopedia entries

Last, First Name and Name Surname, eds., Source Title. (Published in: Publisher, Year).
Gibbons, William and Marcel Prust, eds., America’s Electricity System. (Seattle:
Engineering Books, 2003).


1 First, Last Name and First, Last Name, eds., Source. (City: Publisher, Year),
s.v. “Entry. ”
1 William Gibbons and Marcel Prust, eds., America’s Electricity System. (Seattle:
Engineering Books, 2003), s.v. “Planning Measures.”

Journal articles

Surname, Name. “Title.” Journal Volume, Issue. Number (Year): pages.

Summer, Donna. “English Poetry Analysis.” Journal of Modern Poetry 34, no. 4 (2004): 23-25.


First Name, Last Name, “Title.” Journal Volume, issue, Number (Year): pages.
1 Donna Summer, “English Poetry Analysis,” Journal of Modern Poetry 34, no. 4
(2004): 23.

Website citing

Last, First Name. “Title.” Website. Accessed Month Day, Year. URL
Philips, John. “Wonder Years.” America Weekend Show. Accessed April 18, 2009. http://www.site.au.


Name, Last Name, “Title,” Website, accessed Month Day, Year, URL.
1 John, Philips, “Wonder Years,” America Weekend Show, accessed April 18, 2009, http://www.site.au.


Follow this template:

Creator’s Name. “Title”. Moth, Day, Year of Publication. Format, video length. URL.
Education Channel. “International Students.” Published May 16, 2011. Video, 11:38. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=url.

For notes part:

1 Education Channel, “International Students,” published May 16, 2011, video, 11:38, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=url.

Social Media Citation

Social media entries should be mentioned only in Notes and Footnotes.


Author Name (handle), “Post content”. Source, Date and time of publication, URL.
10. Stephen King (@StephenKing), “Once you start, the next one is always easier.” Twitter, March 7, 2020, 12:11 a.m., https://twitter.com/StephenKing/status/1236051882893852673.


Author Name (handle), “Post content,” Source, Date of publication, URL.
11 @AncientGreece, “Venus,” Instagram photo, May 3, 2012, https://www.instagram.com/url/.


Author Name, “Post content,” Source, Date of publication, URL.
12 Mattesson Richard, post to Progressive Rock Mattesson Music’s Facebook page, December 4, 2017 (5.22 pm), accessed February 2, 2000, https://www.facebook.com/progrockmusic/


Interviews are only used in notes, as follows:

Number. Interviewee Last Name and First Name, “Title,” interviewed by [Name of Interviewer], Title of Publication, Date, URL.
1. Tames, Michael, “Interview,” interviewed by John Hewitt, Series of Interview, March 2, 2016, https://site.com.

Citing a lecture

Surname, Name. “Title.” Lecture, Location, Month Day, Year.
Nolan, Clive. “Music in South Africa.” Lecture, King’s College, August 14, 2005.


1 Name, Last Name, “Title,” (lecture, location, Month Day, Year).
1 Clive Nolan, “Music in South Africa,” (lecture, King’s College, August 3, 2005).

Citing source in another source

Author. “Title,” Journal Volume, issue, Number (Year): pages. Quoted in Author1, Source. City: Publisher, Year.
Knight, Robert and Hunter James. “Sunday Recipes for Breakfast,” Journal of Home Cooking 22, no. 3 (2004): 13-34. Quoted in William Trent, Culinary. London: CSN Press, 2007.


1 First Last Name and First Last Name, “Title,” Journal Volume, issue. Number (Year): page, quoted in First Name / Last Name, Source (City: Publisher, Year), page.
1 Robert Knight and Hunter James, “Sunday Recipes for Breakfast,” Journal of Home Cooking 22, no. 3 (2004): 13, quoted in William Trent, Culinary (London: CSN Press, 2007), 13.

Why Turabian Citing is Important?

Turabian citing is important because it allows college and high school students to avoid plagiarism and keep within academic integrity. Using someone’s ideas without proper referencing in your research, it is considered as academic dishonesty. Implementing correct rules, one can cite properly. In addition, use our Turabian citation maker for any sources and resource types as you browse through books, magazines, and websites. Most college professors look at writing mechanics and accurate citing, which is also frequently noted in the grading rubric. Looking through our guide, we recommend combining rules and Turabian citation generator for best grade results!

Turabian Citation Generator Machine

Knowing how difficult it is to process through numerous sources as one writes a research paper or dissertation, we came up with a unique Turabian Citation Maker. Here are some of its benefits:

✍️ Citation Style Turabian 9th edition
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📚 Sources Website, book, video, journal, etc.
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  • Free, manual and automatic online citation machine.
  • Choose any source type.
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  • Both “Author-Date” and “Notes” results are generated.
  • Fast and easy process with search engine included.
  • Manual mode allows to carefully edit available information.


What is the difference between Chicago and Turabian styles?

Major difference is in simplicity. Turabian is mostly directed at students who are not going to publish their papers, yet still look professional and accurate. In certain sense, it is like preparation for more complex, specific styles. Chicago, in its turn, has additional rules that are more aimed at publishing and newspapers.

What’s new in 9th edition of Turabian, compared to 8th edition?

According to the Turabian manual, there are some changes that include:

  • Publication year can be repeated in citing that includes publishing month and date.
  • “Ibid” use is no more recommended. Use a short footnote style instead.

When should I use Author-date style?

According to the Turabian manual based on the latest edition of the Chicago Manual, “Author-Date” style (Jones 2004) should be used for Social Sciences and Physics.

Why to use both Notes and Bibliography?

Notes and Bibliography use different formatting, which helps readers to check sources quickly for reference without making a long pause from reading. See our examples in each case.

What is the page layout for Turabian?

Margins should be 1 inch on all sides. Generally, page layout should be no less than 1 inch and no more than 1.5 inches. Font used should be Times New Roman no lesser than 12 points.