Chicago Citation Guide: How to Cite in Chicago Style
First presented in 1906, Chicago style citation takes honorary place of most respected and commonly accepted writing formats for American English. Already reaching 17th edition, the Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) is used for both research papers and manuscripts that are ready for being published. Still, the majority of college and university students in the USA find it challenging when it comes to correct citing. In order to make citation work easier, we offer Chicago citation maker that can easily handle most source types.
What makes Chicago styling difficult for students is its usage of two different citation patterns that are applied depending on the subject. If one has to deliver papers for History, Literature, and Arts, most college professors recommend using “Notes-Bibliography” style. Physics, Social and Natural Sciences subjects require classic “Author-Date” citation. Even though it might sound confusing in the beginning, our practical Chicago style guide with examples will help you see how each rule works in practice.
Footnotes, Notes and In-Text Citing in Chicago Format
In our Chicago citation guide, we provide both citing patterns, so one can see specifics when using notes. An important point is that when a certain source is mentioned, a note or footnote should be placed with the corresponding number. A superscript numbering is used for such purposes.
When using notes for second or any subsequent time, full publication details are not included, as one will see in templates.
– Footnote or an endnote citation:
1 First Last name, Book (Publication: Publisher, Publication year), page number.
If there is one author for a print book
Last, First name. Book. Publication location: Publisher, year.
When citing in-text, first source mentioning only implements corresponding number. In following parenthetical citing, use these examples:
….which has helped to support (Dawnes 2004, 12).
In a 2004 report, Dawnes (112) has helped to support social research based on…
Two book author citation
(Kern and Wilders 2002, 121)
Three book authors citation
(Curtis, Frank, and Zachary 2012, 34)
Four or more book authors in Chicago citation
(Jansen et al. 2017, 213)
Organization as an author citation
Provide organization, source title or abbreviation:
(NATO 2000, 134) (“Polar Bears Safety” 2004, 12)
(“Red Tower History” 2015, 32)
Unknown page number Chicago citation
(Harris 2016, para. 2:34)
Unknown date citing
(Hicks n.d., 118)
Multi-volume book source in Chicago style
(Ryan 2005, 2:35)
Authors with same last name
(Clang R. 2010 and Clang S. 2011)
Two or more works by same author, same year
Add corresponding letter after publishing year:
(Marx 2010a) and (Marx 2010b)
Books with editors Chicago citation
According to latest Chicago manual, “ed.” part is not required, just provide:
(Heinz 1998, 45)
Multiple sources in same citation
(Jagger 2011, 21; Gilmour 2012, 738)
Indirect in-text citation
(quoted in Paster 2015, 12)
Webpage, social media or source citation
For footnotes in Chicago citation, number is added when citing in-text. In “Author-Date”, same rules are applied as with print sources. Major difference relates to Bibliography part.
Creating My Bibliography and Reference Chicago Examples
All references in Chicago style bibliography are arranged alphabetically based on the author’s last names. If the author is unknown, sort sources by title first word.
Author. Book: Subtitle. Place where published: Publisher, Year.
Vedder, Edward. Mental Searching: Social Psychology. Miami: Major Books, 2001.
For creating a footnote, use:
1. Author First Name/Initial Surname, Book Title: Subtitle (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), page number.
Edward Vedder, Mental Searching: Social Psychology (Miami: Major Books, 2001), 27.
For all following notes:
2 Vedder, Mental Searching: Social Psychology, 27.
Citing more than one author
Author1, and Author2. Book: Subtitle. Place of Publication: Publishing house, Year.
Jorg, Michael, and Tom A. Sawyer. Adventures in Business Negotiations: Third Party. London: Penguin Books, 2006.
For Chicago style footnote, use:
1. Author1 and Author2, Book: Subtitle (Place of Publication: Publishing house, Year), page number.
Michael Stark and John Wells, School Education Online: E-Books (New York: Turner Publishing, 2007), 34-39.
For all following notes:
2 Stark and Wells, School Education Online: E-Books, 34.
Book with editor
Author. “Chapter”. In Book, edited by Editor Name(s), page range. Place where published: Publishing house, Year.
Craig, Daniel. “Visual Magic”. In Cinematic Science, edited by Edward Pilzner, 18-36. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
For notes: 1 Author’s Name, “Chapter”, in Book, ed. Editor Name(s) (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), page number(s).
1 Daniel Craig, “Visual Magic”, in Cinematic Science, ed. Edward Pilzner (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), 27.
Second and later citing:
1 Craig, “Visual Magic”, 27.
Referencing a chapter in a book
Author. “Chapter or Article.” In Book: Subtitle, edited by Editor First Name Surname, page range of article/chapter. Publication location: Publisher, Year.
Secada, John. “Field Crops.” In Modern Myths: Logic and Reason, edited by William Stone, 32-37. Amsterdam: Elsevier Books, 2005.
For citing a full note, use:
1. Author, “Chapter or Article,” in Book: Subtitle, ed. Editor (Where published: Publisher, Year), page number.
1 John Secada, “Field Crops Revealed,” in Modern Myths: Logic and Reason, ed. William Stone (Amsterdam: Elsevier Books, 2005), 32.
For all following notes:
Secada “Field Crops Revealed,” 32.
E-Book Citing (Kindle)
Same rules apply as for printed sources with reference to publisher, database or website found.
Simmons, Gene. Healthcare in Uganda. London: Penguin Books, 2005. Kindle.
1 First Last Name, “Article,” Journal. Volume, issue. Number (Year): pages, DOI: xx.xxxx/xxxxx
Linda Amber, “College Roommates,” Social Conflicts 12, no. 34 (2006): 259, doi: 10.1000/000000000.
For notes that follow:
1. Amber, “College Roommates,” 259.
Last Name, First Name. “Title.” Newspaper, Month Day, Year.
Wild, Sandy. “Urban Troubled Youth.” New York Times, January 14, 2009.
Lectures and presentations
Lecturer. “Lecture.” Lecture, Location of Lecture, Month Day, Year of Lecture.
Leiton, Warren. “Sociology Introduction.” Lecture, London, July 17, 2005.
1. Lecturer, “Lecture” (lecture, Location of Lecture, Month Day, Year of Lecture).
1 Warren Leiton, “Sociology Introduction” (lecture, London, July 17, 2005).
Leiton, “Sociology Introduction.”
Webpage with an author
Author1 and Author2. “Title of Webpage.” Name of website. Month Day, Year. URL.
Stark, C. N., and T. E. Bates. “South African Tribes.” Site. July 19, 2018. http://www.site.edu.
1. C. N. Stark and T.E. Bates. “South African Tribes,” Site, July 19, 2018, http://www.site.edu.
2. Stark and Bates, “South African Tribes.”
Last, First Name [or username if no author specified] (@handle). “Full tweet text.” Twitter, Month day, year. URL.
Bullock, Sandra (@bullocksandra). “Growing up in Montessori School, I learned how to adapt to life.” Twitter, June 15, 2009. https://twitter.com/url/.
Last, First Name (or organization where applicable). “Text of first post sentence or phrase shared on Facebook post.” Facebook, Month day, year posted. URL.
Harvard Business School Archive. “Educational Tendencies.” Facebook, March 8, 2018. https://www.facebook.com/.
Last, First Name [or single username] (@handle). “Text first sentence specified or signal key phrase used in Instagram post.” Instagram, Month day, year posted. URL.
See this example:
Beatles Literary Analysis (@fab4literature). “Lennon’s handwriting decrypted in R sounds.” Instagram, May 14, 2018. https://www.instagram.com/url/.
When citing video content from Youtube:
Last, First Name [or name of channel]. “Video Title.” Day month year posted. Video, length. URL.
Animals in Wild Nature. “Panda feeding patterns.” August 9, 2017. Video, 5:03. https://youtu.be/url
Audio / Video / Images
Citing films in print
Director’s Name, dir. Movie Title. Year of release; Place of Publication: Publisher, video release year. Medium.
Wallace, Andy, dir. Running Through London. 2002; London: Universal UK, 2005. DVD.
For notes use:
1. Movie Title, directed by Director (Year of release, Place of Publication: Publisher, video release year), Medium.
1. Running Through London, directed by Andy Wallace (2002; London: Universal UK, 2005), DVD.
Citing Musical Recording
Performer/Band. “Title”. Contributing personnel. Date. Record label. Number of recording on Album Name, Year of recording, format.
Queen. “Bohemian Rhapsody”. 1975. Hollywood Records. Track 1 on Greatest Hits: “We Will Rock You” Edition, 2004, Audio CD.
Photo / Image Citation
Images from electronic resources
Author Surname, First Name. Image Title. Year. Medium, size. Museum or place image can be found, Location. URL.
Berry, Oscar. Volunteering in NYC. 2004. Photograph. New York Gallery, New York, US. https://www.site.com.
1. Author, Image, Year, medium, size, Museum or place, Location, URL.
1. Oscar Berry, Volunteering in NYC, 2004, Photograph, New York Gallery, New York, US, https://www.site.com.
If image comes from print source
Author Surname, First Name or Initial. Image Title. Year Photo was Taken (if available). In Book Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year, page or plate #.
Wilde, Kim, R. First Recording Session. 1986. in Culture of 1980s. London: Warner Group, 1989, 34.
1. Author, Image, Year Photo was Taken (if available), in Book (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), page or plate #.
1 Kim Wilde, First Recording Session, 1986, in Culture of 1980s (London: Warner Group, 1989), 34.
Academic Sources / Interviews
If source cited is in print, reference it like any other document, dissertation or report.
An URL should be added. When citing first note, provide all identifying information same as in Bibliography page.
Seattle Forensic Bureau. Bureau of Criminology. Criminal Database Template. Seattle, WA: Seattle Dept. of Criminology, Division of Forensic Research, Bureau of Investigation, 2006. http://www.site.org/.
Author. “Interview’s title.” Interview by Name, Last Name. Program, Organization, Date. Audio, Time (xx:xx). URL.
King, Larry. “Cold War Ethics.” Interview by William James. Tonight Host Show, CNBC, April 7, 2011. Audio, 32:26. http://www.site.com
1 Larry King, “Cold War Ethics,” Interview by William James, Tonight Host Show, CNBC, April 7, 2011, Audio, 32:26. http://www.site.com
For notes that follow:
1 King, interview.
Cite an Encyclopedia / Dictionary
Last Name, First Name. “Title of the Article”. In Encyclopedia/Dictionary name. Edition ed. Publication City: Publisher Name, Year Published.
Writing an academic assignment in Sociology or Arts paper, even most common ideas and arguments should be supported by academic sources to make research reliable. A reason why Chicago citing is important is the avoidance of plagiarism. Generally, research papers can include from 10 to 15 diverse sources that include books, academic journals, and different media. It is no wonder that even the best college students easily get confused and spend hours with diverse sources as they cite Chicago style. To make citation easier and faster, we offer Chicago citation maker as it helps with:
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Is Turabian format the same as Chicago?
No, it is not the same because Turabian is alike to simplified version of Chicago. Chicago Manual of Style can maintain complex and professional research papers that can be published later on. Turabian, even though based on CMOS, has less rules and is more accessible for high school students and colleges.
What are Bibliography page requirements?
Start Bibliography page from new document’s page. “Bibliography” should be centered at the top. Use Times New Roman, 12 point font. List sources alphabetically. If no author is provided, use titles.
What are cover page rules?
Start with title center alignment. It should begin approximately half down your document. Following lines should include professor, course, and paper’s date. Each line should be centered. Page numbers are not used in Chicago’s cover page. Title page does not include word count, if not told otherwise.
Where to insert multimedia sources and in what order?
As a rule, Chicago style citations should be listed alphabetically. Books and articles, as long as they come from print resources, can be listed together. However, if there are multimedia sources like audio, video, and images, they should be listed in a separate list.
What are fonts and indents rules for page layout?
Implement 1” margins at sides, bottom, and top of each page.