Presented by American Medical Association, the AMA format is aimed at college and university students working with diverse medical research assignments. This guide will review AMA citations for websites cases with examples and basic formatting rules. A reason why AMA style is especially difficult for medical students comes from the major difference compared to classic APA or MLA formats, which use author-date system for in-text quoting. In AMA format, one has to implement Arabic superscript numbering. While it may sound complex at first, there is no need to worry as this step-by-step website citing guide, unique citation generator, and expert writing help will help to get most complex tasks done and delivered in time!
AMA Website Rules and Examples for In-text Quoting
As already mentioned, citing websites AMA, when in-text, does not use classic quoting where author’s last name follows publication year. Instead of that, it uses Arabic superscript numbering every time student has to reference particular source:
Authors Last Name 1
Remember that each source has only one number assigned to it, no matter how often or in which order it is cited! Let us review several examples:
Website article with an author
Jones1 mentioned in a recent research that…
When referencing, both surnames should be listed:
Lake and Stills2 reported on several instances…
Three or more authors
Include first author’s last name, following with “et al” element. For medical papers written in this format, it is also recommended to use “and research assistants”.
Torn et al3 discovered that molecular particles were…
Unknown author or organization
If no author specified, students should use title of website’s section or organizations name, if applicable.
According to National Health Archives (NHA)4 reports, one can assume that…
Sources without page number
As per 10th AMA Website Citation manual, pages are not obligatory, therefore, such information can be omitted. However, if one has to specify source page (as in articles), use this example:
According to research by Dr. Chang, “Majority of ER personnel in Chicago has struggled with uneven resources distribution and stress management flaws”5(p16)
Remember that page numbers always follow after citation personal number!
Multiple sources in same citation
Each source used should be listed according to superscript citing numbers, divided by comma. A range of examples is separated by hyphen, as shown:
As confirmed by emergency nursing research, 1,3-8,16
Medical research has shown that… 3-4
Different authors, same name source
Add number that follows to identify each author.
Multiple works from the same author
If there are multiple works, use next coming number for each work even for same author.
Two or more works by the same author in same year
For in-text citing, one should only add new number that corresponds to future References list.
Electronic sources with date unknown
Use same numbering pattern each time this or that source is mentioned. Most medical research papers need it for clear referencing purposes, which has to provide equal, corresponding numbers.
AMA References Page Citing Tips
First of all, Reference page involves all sources in such order as listed or used by Arabic superscript. It means that sources are not listed alphabetically!
In most cases, for website AMA citation cite:
Author or organization’s name. Title of source material. Specify Website’s Name, URL, Published date, Accessed date.
As in example:
Pulsford N. Seven nursing practices for successful stress management. Nursing Ethics in Practice Online Archive. http://www.site.edu. Published June 21, 2010. Accessed April 12, 2018.
Check most common citing examples:
Web article with an author
Template to follow:
Author A. Title. Website Name. URL. Updated date. Accessed date.
Lake R. Emergency recovery techniques. Chicago Medical Library Archive. http://www.site.com. Updated May 8, 2001. Accessed January 12, 2018.
Online article without an author
Organization’s or Article’s Title. Title of specific item cited. URL. Access date.
Vaccination Control Global. Statistics in Tempe, Arizona. OctaMed Stats Website. http://www.site.org. Accessed April 2, 2007.
Cite website in AMA with unknown date
If publication’s date is unknown, latest website update and access date are used instead.
Sawyer T. PTSD Recovery Methods. Veterans Rehabilitation Council. http://www.url.com. Published date unknown. Accessed May 5, 2012.
Marx A, Lauren W, Stark S, Andrews V. Cancer Patients Nursing Ethics. Public Health Enferm. 2012;7(2):121-136. doi: .
Online periodical with no DOI assigned
If no DOI is assigned, it is recommended to provide as much information as possible regarding mentioned source or any identifying data that will help target audience to find an article in question. It can be any publishing information or academic mentioning.
Author1, Author2, Author3, et al. Title. Title of Periodical. Date; Volume (issue): pages.
Richter S, Tarley E, Topper W, et al. Gene mutations and regulation of neurotransmitters during stress environment. Applied Psychiatry Journal. 2005; 63(8):1026-1034.
If you wonder how to cite CDC website, refer to usual citing format, yet when source comes from online periodical, follow this template and example:
Organization. Article title, Year. Abbreviated journal reference. Year Published; Volume (issue): pages.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Medical Safety Kits Global Distribution. Global Med Stat Wkly Rep. 2017; 14(3):74.
Online interviews are referred to as Personal Communications, which are only mentioned while in-text citing, such as:
In an interview with Dr. Lansbury, PhD, (September 2017) suggested that…
Book on a Website
Author1, Author2. Book title in italics. City of Publishing: Publisher. Year. URL. Access Date.
O’Kane NA, Williams FJ. Handbook of infant breastfeeding. New York: Springer Medical Press. 2001. http://www.springerlink.com/. Accessed June 8, 2016.
Medical Databases Referencing
Medical databases should provide following information, based on availability:
Author(s). Database Title [DOI or online database]. Publisher’s location (city, state, province, country): publisher’s name; publication’s year and/or last update. URL [always make sure that specified source still works]. Accessed [date].
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vaccines.CDC.gov: NNDSS. Equal Vaccine Distribution in Congo. Los Angeles, CA. CDC; 2012. https://cdc.gov. Accessed May 22, 2017.
Citing Lecture Notes
In AMA format, lecture notes are cited in several ways. It depends if they come from an online source or are distributed on paper. See below:
Author A. Title [lecture type]. University. URL. Latest update. Access Date.
Mertens R. Elderly Care Introduction Course [PDF lecture notes]. XYZ University. https://site.abc.edu/ Updated January 15, 2017. Accessed March 2, 2018.
If study materials refer to handouts given by professor in a classroom, it is cited as personal communication.
How to cite images in AMA
According to AMA 10th edition manual, such case is approached as Web Object, which follows this format:
Author1, Author2. Page or Object Title. Website Title. URL. Published Month DD, Year or Updated DD, Year. Accessed Month, DD. Year.
Oliver J., Findlay H. Heart valve position. National Medical Archives. http://www.site.com. Updated May 4, 2005. Accessed June 14, 2018.
General AMA Style Format Rules
In AMA 10th edition manual, they did not specify any obligatory font, spacing or style requirements. Therefore, we provide general AMA format website style rules for medical research papers, as found in health sciences library guides.
Remember that even when using same source citing, it remains with same number assigned, even if used after several other sources.Partial titles of journal articles, books or web objects should be in sentence case, but not in italics. Only complete book titles are in Title Case and Italics. Note that websites and unpublished materials do not fall under this rule. If author’s middle name is unknown, omit it. Sources are not listed alphabetically, but follow same numbering as used during in-text citing.
In addition to knowing how to cite a website in AMA, it is crucial to know general page layout rules and little details that most college professors in the United States always look out for:
Margins. Generally, implement one-inch margins. Right margin is not justified.
Line Spacing. Single-spacing for all document sections. Double spacing should be used only between paper’s paragraphs.
Fonts. For most cases, Times New Roman, point 12 should be used. For diagrams and charts elements, use Arial.
Indents. Half-inch indents are recommended.
Headers. Short title header is placed at page’s top, aligned with page number of left margin.
Reference Page Spacing. All references should be enumerated exactly as they were cited in original text. Single-spaced within citation, but double-spaced between cited sources.
Quick Referencing Help With AMA Citation Generator for Website
Website AMA citation generator is free, without ads and allows you to get sources in order within minutes.
Choose preferred style from generator’s menu, select required source type, type your title, click “Generate” to cite websites AMA style.
The generator has AMA manual style mode that allows entering information that you have available step by step.
Generator is handy search engine as you can enter DOI or just title to get several related sources.
24/7 online availability and possibility to choose any other style format easily.
Majority of medical students in the United States face challenges with medical homework assignments, let alone AMA websites citing, yet our experts also make sure that correct terminology and medical accuracy are achieved!
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