It is a fact that plagiarism is one of the most unwanted elements in every existing sort of academic writing, a possible way to avoid which is referencing, citing ideas, quotes, and other information borrowed from other people. For this purpose were created different styles of citations, for example ASA or CSE format, Chicago Style.
Harvard style referencing is one of the most commonly-used styles. It is used by students and scientists from all niches of science in their documents, which is why chances are that you will face the need to format your sources using Harvard citation style at some point.
Below are some guidelines on how to reference sources in Harvard style. It provides useful recommendations that students who work on article and need to cite information sources should follow, below you can find detailed Harvard style guidelines.
What Are General Rules Of Harvard Style Citation Guide?
Working on article, you can cite sources following two ways: in-text citations, which are used within body of work, or reference lists, which normally stand at the end of work.
Remember some rules before you start Harvard referencing of various sources:
- If you use reference list, sources have to be listed alphabetically by author’s surname. Using several citations by the same author, list them chronologically by date of publication.
- Two types of citation exist: direct and indirect, each of which should be cited differently following Harvard style – direct one involves page numbers and name of author. If page number is not available, you can use paragraph’s number. Citing indirectly, you mention author’s name to show you have used author’s ideas; it is not the same as quotation.
How To Cite From Books?
- Book with one writer: write surname and name’s initial, date of publication, title, edition, city of publication, publisher.
- If book has two or three authors, write family name and name’s initial of the first author, then the same should be done for all other authors. After that, write year, title, city of publication and publisher.
- If book has four or more authors, you should write the first author’s name directly in text; however, creating reference list at the end of text, all authors should be listed in original sequence they are credited in reference. Use the same scheme: surname and initials of all author’s, year, title, city of publication, publisher.
- If you have to cite chapter in an edited book, you should include the edition of this book. Write family name, name’s initial, year, chapter title, specify editor, book title, edition, city of publication, publisher, page/s.
- If you cite several books by the same writer, you should list them in chronological sequence of publication. If you have books, which were published in the same year, label them with ‘a’, ‘b’, ’c’ and other after the year.
Citations From Online Sources
- When you cite from website in accordance with Harvard citation guide, write author or source (if you could not find specific author), year, title of this document or page. Then add: ‘ [online]. (Last updated). Available at: URL [Accessed date: Day/Month/Year].’
- Emails: write sender’s family name and name’s initial, year and subject line of email.
- When citing from social media, write surname and name’s initial of author, year, title of page, day, month and year, add URL and accessed date.
How To Cite From Articles?
- When you cite print journal, write family name, name’s initial, year, article title, journal name, volume and page.
- If you cite magazine article, add name of the magazine. Include volume number.
- Journal articles on website or database: use the same scheme, including in the end: ‘Available from: URL. [Accessed: date].’
- Citations from newspaper articles: you should add in the end: ‘Retrieved from: Journal title/ URL if freely available.’.
How To Make Citation From Images And Visual Mediums?
- If you cite from film, write its date of release, type of medium, director, country, film studio.
- When you cite from YouTube, you should add username of the contributor, year, title, series, type of medium, URL, accessed date.
- What to do with broadcasts? You have to write series title, episode title, year, broadcasting organisation, channel, date and time of transmission.
- Images or photographs: add surname of artist, name’s initial, year, title, type of medium, collection details.
- You can cite maps if needed. To do this add map maker’s name, date of issue, title of map, map series, sheet number, scale, place of publication and publisher.
- Podcasts: write broadcaster’s name, year, program’s title, series title, type of medium, date of transmission. Add URL and accessed date.