Your Ultimate CSE Citation Generator & Referencing Tips

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Comprehensive CSE Citation Guide

Every student is going to be assigned a task of writing academic papers at some point. Some may enjoy writing and look forward to it while others would prefer to avoid it. In both cases, there is one common element: a general lack of love toward formatting styles all students exhibit. It’s one thing to let your mind run when coming up with various writing ideas, but formatting styles are strictly limiting because there are sets of rules you have to obey.

CSE style, which stands for Council of Science Editors, is quite common among many disciplines. Lots of students choose using CSE citation maker as it helps them cite everything automatically, with minimal efforts. Still, it’s important to know its mechanics by heart to ensure that there are no mistakes. Knowing basics will help avoid plagiarism, and that’s why it’s crucial to cite sources. Credit authors when needed and this way, your paper will be credible. Look through this CSE guide to learn how to format essays properly.

CSE Style Background

Let’s start with figuring out what subjects CSE citation format is used for. Since it denotes the Council of Science Editors, naturally, it covers various scientific disciplines, such as Medicine, Life Sciences, and others. Initially, it was called CBE to show its connection to biology, but it was renamed later. So, if you see mentions of CBE, don’t panic: it’s the same CSE, just under different name.

The peculiarity of CSE style is that there are two types of it, citation-sequence and name-year ones. The former is more common, so we’re going to focus on it primarily, but we’ll also regard all basics of the latter. Make sure to check your professor’s template to understand which type of CSE in particular is needed.   

Formatting CSE In-text Citations Properly: Citation-Sequence

The system of in-text citations in CSE citation-sequence format involves the use of superscript as well as Arabic numerals (1,2,3, etc.). It facilitates formatting of each source because you don’t have to worry about putting in all required details, such as names, dates, and page numbers. Just use superscript numerals, but remember to note down what number denotes what source. Later, when it’s time to format bibliography, you’ll have to follow identical structure, so the source you’ve used as first in the text will also be first in a reference list.

The author you mention first will have numeral 1 in text. If you use the same source again later, it’ll still have numeral 1. It will also be first in a reference list.

CSE citation maker can be extremely helpful but it can’t know which sources you’ve used in what order, so pay attention to it. Numbers should be placed right after facts mentioned, not after authors’ names like in other formatting styles.

Page Numbers

This CSE type doesn’t need page numbers regardless of what kind of information you’re using. Even direct quotes and specific moments from text don’t require them, so just focus on numbers that signify each separate reference. In rare cases, professors might ask to still include pages to ensure that no fake referencing is used. In this instance, follow template provided to you by professor, clarify it, or just add pages manually, like in example below.

Only rare species can “show these deviations” 1(p.12)

One Author

When you’d like to cite one author in text, you can do it both directly and indirectly. Mention his/her name in a sentence, then write the fact/quote you wanted to mention and put a numeral after it.   

While Jameson believed in equality, he thought it was impossible to achieve it3.

Note how numeral is used after a fact, not after a name. It’s an important rule in CSE formatting style. For accuracy, you can check everything through CSE citation generator even if you’re sure of yourself.

In indirect case, no name is needed at all, just use numeral after a fact like in previous example.

Multiple Authors

In this CSE type, the number of people who authored a source doesn’t matter. When using them in text, unite them with “and” conjunction.

For example:

Kostner, Slavinks, and Joshua study the effects of addiction on young people6.

List them in reference list, but in in-text citations, numerals cover everything.

Organization as an Author

Often, no direct author is present and only name of organization can be found. In such cases, treat it like you would actual people-authors. Put a numeral after fact and/or mention organization’s name in text.

WHO revealed that 13% of population suffer from this disease13.

Unknown Author

CSE citation machine can help greatly when you face some particular difficulties — for example, if some info is missing from source. If there is no author, use title of work, whether it’s article, blog entry, etc. Mention it in text or don’t mention it at all, just make sure to include a numeral like in previous examples.

Authors with the Same Last Name

CSE citation maker won’t be able to assist if you’ve decided to use several authors who share one name in your essay. To distinguish them from one another, use their first names’ initials when mentioning them in text and include corresponding numerals after that.

For example:

K. Livingstin8 and S. Livingstin12.

Several Works by One Author

CSE citation maker will also find it difficult to format citations when you’re using several articles/books written by one author. Don’t worry, though! Remember, citation-sequence type of CSE is all about numerals. Use different ones for each work of your chosen author based on examples above. 

Multiple Sources in One Citation

There are two options of listing groups of works in one citation. Do it through comma put between numerals or use hyphen.  

These ideas have been explored by numerous marine scientists5,7,8,15.

Or:

Many biologists agree with this7-12.

Electronic Sources

As CSE citation maker can show, there is no difference between how you format in-text citations for electronic and published sources. Numerals, names, and titles are used in the same way.

Formatting CSE In-text Citations Properly: Name-Year

This CSE variation differs from previously mentioned model. Take a look at most widespread examples. Note that no numerals are needed here.

One Author

Mention last name and date:

(Woonens 2013)

Two Authors

Unite two names with “and”. Don’t forget about date, like this:

(Kilings and Staffets 2017)

Three and More Authors

Put ‘et al.’ after first author, then date.

(Jefsons et al. 2011)

Several Works by One Author Published in One Year

Add a letter after the year. It helps to understand what source you reference. Letters must be assigned chronologically, for example

(Davidson 2018a); (Davidson 2019b)

Organization as Author

Rules here are identical with those applied to usual writers’ names.

(WHO 2015)

No Author

Mention one or several words seen first in a source you’re citing. Put ellipsis and date after it.

(Being accepted . . . 2015)

Electronic Sources

Rules here are the same as in above-mentioned examples. Just mention author, date if it’s present, or first words of a source. If date is unknown, include this exact wording:

(Collins [date unknown])

CSE Reference List Formatting: Citation-Sequence

Ordering process is based on numerals. Remember, sources used first in text with numeral 1 will have the same position in references list. Source used second will have numeral 2  and so on. CSE citation maker can be greatly helpful here, but still, knowing basics is essential.

Books with One Author

CSE style for books with one author requires the following structure.

Numeral. Author AA. Book’s Title. Location: Publishing House; Year of publication.

Check a particular example for better comprehension:

7. Merope TM. Understanding biology. New York (NY): Random House; 2008.

Books with Multiple Authors

If there are several authors, list them after comma. Everything else remains the same.

Numeral. Author AA, Author BB. Book’s title. Location: Publishing House; Year of publication.

2. Nevils L, Porter LM. Leaving seas. Chicago (IL): University of Chicago Press; 2015.

Journal Articles

Articles are used often, especially from academic journals. Let’s see how they should be formatted in CSE.

Numeral. Author AA. Article’s title. Journal’s title. Year of publication;volume(issue): pages.

23. Leroy MK, Chairs OS. Better oxygen outcomes. Nature. 2015;7(1): 13-17.

Electronic Websites

When using electronic sites, use CSE citation maker for best results. Still, double-check with template to be on the safe side.

Numeral. Author AA. Content’s Title [Internet]. Location: Publisher, Day Month Year [cited Year Month Date]. Available from link.

See below for more specific example.

13. Lethern KL. Gender Identity Formation [Internet]. New York: LGBT Equal Rights Association, 24 March 2016 [cited 2019 Apr 9]. Available from http://111.org/.

If no author is present, start with content’s title.

Online Magazine Articles

Rules are similar here with the ones for academic articles: just mention newspaper’s name.

Numeral. Author AA. Article’s title. Newspaper’s Title [Internet]. Year Month Day. [accessed Year Month Day]. Link.

12. Mopherson L. Conquering childhood fears. The New York Times [Internet]. 2017 June 20. [accessed 2019 Apr 9]. http://www.111.com/.

E-books

E-books are very popular in days of Internet. To cite them in CSE, follow this template:

Numeral. Author AA. Book’s title [electronic resource]. Location: Publisher; Year of publication. [accessed Year Month Day]. Link.

1. Snols F. Evil Vanished [electronic resource]. New York (NY): Random House; 2017. [accessed 2019 Apr 9]. https://www.111.com/.

Encyclopedia

CSE citation maker can help with most references, encyclopedias included.

Numeral. Author AA. Section’s title. In: Encyclopedia’s name. Edition. Vol. Location: Publisher; Year of publication. Section pages.

3. Lowell GK. Endangered birds. In: Woodhills encyclopedia of animals. 4th ed. Vol. 4. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2018. p. 156.

Patents

Formatting patents might be complex for CSE citation maker, so better look at template to do everything correctly.

Numeral. Inventor II, investors; Assignee AA, assignee. Title of patent. Location patent number. Publication date.

3. Jakes KK, Watsons KD, inventors; Jenson’s Pharmacies, assignee. Amino acids building blocks. United States patent US 2,234,555. 2-16 June 15.

CSE Reference List Formatting: Name-Year

In CSE name-year format, referencing rules are somewhat different as no numerals are used. Most elements are similar, though. Look at entries below that can help you cite everything properly.  

Books

Lack of numeral and changed date placement are the only differences here, so cite everything like this:

Author AA. Year of publication. Book’s title. Location: Publisher.

Noels BR. 2013. Losing faith. New York (NY): Random House.

Journal Articles

Rules here are also similar to those in CSE citation-sequence type.

Author AA. Year of publication. Article’s title. Journal’s name. Volume(issue): pages.

Solkins FE. 2014. Rates of unemployment in the UAE. Nature. 13(2): 12-23.

Organization as Author

Organization’s Name. Year of entry’s publication. Content’s title. Publisher.

National Cancer Institute. 2013. Quality change application. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health.

Electronic Sites

Again, this format’s rules are basically the same as they are in CSE citation-sequence type.

Author AA. Content’s Title [Internet]. 2015. Location: Publisher. [cited Year Month Day]. Available from link.

Davidson HJ. Unemployment Repercussions [Internet]. 2012. Berkeley (CA): University of California Press. [cited 2019 Feb 2]. Available from http://222.org/.

Benefits of Using EduBirdie’s CSE Citation Maker

EduBirdie provides a great online citations generator that will assist you on every step. Let’s see top three benefits it can offer.

  • EduBirdie’s CSE citation maker is completely free, so there is no need to pay something. We’re a student-orientated resource, which is why meeting your needs is our top priority. Just go to our site, select style you need, and facilitate your formatting process.
  • Our EduBirdie’s CSE citation maker is constantly updated based on feedback we get. We strive to ensure that our system makes no mistakes and you get the best grade for formatting, so be assured that what we offer you is reliable.
  • EduBirdie’s CSE Citation Maker provides both final references and in-text citations for your entries. So, when typing in source selected and starting generating process, you’ll see how references and in-text citations must be formatted at once, without wasting time on repeated operations.

CSE FAQ

Can I trust EduBirdie’s CSE Citation Maker?

Yes. While you should definitely ask professor about template created specifically for your uni, our generator corresponds to most common basic standards. We constantly test our system of references to provide best results.

What’s most complicated about CSE?

CSE differs from other styles because it’s divided into two different types, citation-sequence and name-year ones. Don’t let it confuse you, just ask professor about which type they prefer. In-text citation systems these types have differ drastically but references are similar, so by learning one, you’ll get an idea about another as well.   

How should CSE in-text citations be formatted?

Use either numerals or authors’ names along with date. Again, clarify which type is needed and study template carefully to avoid mistakes. Same goes for using CSE citation maker.

Can you help me with CSE formatting?

Sure. If you think you might make mistakes or lack time, contact us and we’ll deal with your formatting ourselves. Our writers are well-versed in both CSE types, so we’ll provide perfectly formatted quality paper by the time specified.  

What if CSE template I got from my professor differs from yours?

Such things happen rarely with CSE but they’re still possible. If so, study your template attentively and format paper based on it. Also, you can send it to us and EduBirdie’s professionals will take care of your essay by following all requirements.