Made famous by Kate Turabian to help college and high school students with citation challenges, Turabian format is a simplified version of Chicago citing style. Commonly used for essays, research papers, theses, and even dissertations, this style format has less complex rules because it is not meant for publishing as of yet. In this handy guide, we will review Turabian 9th edition, so one can see what should be noted and what rules are obligatory. We know that even with professional assistance, writing formats are still difficult to comprehend, therefore, we offer free Turabian citation maker online that can help you with most source types.
Before we continue with in-text citation examples, it is important to consider that Turabian style, like Chicago, implements two different quoting patterns, depending on subject.
“Notes and Bibliography” pattern is recommended for Literature, Arts, and History. What makes it different from usual citation style is use of superscript numbered footnotes or endnotes after each source quoted. It is used to add flexibility, identification, and clearer reference to Bibliography entries.
“Author-Date” is usual parenthetical pattern where author’s last name is followed by publishing year (Andrews 2011). It is mostly used in Physics, Natural Sciences, and Sociology. As for Bibliography, it is sorted alphabetically.
Let us review examples for both cases to make it clear.
We will start with “Author-Date” style first, so one does not get confused with too much information. Later on, there are examples of “Notes -Bibliography” in-text examples.
Use resource title instead:
Identify sources by title, adding lower case letter:
Simply use semicolon as in example:
Turabian In-text citation for electronic sources follows same rules as for print resources. Golden rule here is to include sufficient information in Bibliography that could help to identify specified resource. From URL specified to update and access dates, add as much as available.
In order to place note or footnote in a research paper, place superscript number for each source. Notes are placed with an indent, either as footnote at page’s bottom or as an endnote in conclusion of a document. Nevertheless, one should still implement superscript numbers with footnotes. Our Turabian citation maker provides both citation options as results are generated. Let’s take a look at Turabian format examples:
When citing books for “Notes”, one should follow this template:
Author or editor; Title; Compiler, translator or editor (if available); Edition; Series name, including volume or number used; Published in, publisher and publication date; Citation page numbers (for footnote or endnote).
Include author or editor’s last name and page number without title. When citation includes more than one source, include work’s title, too.
When same page is cited in succession with no other references included:
If different page number is used for same resource, include 2Ibid., 31.
Same rules are applied as for print books with inclusion of URL and access date. See both examples in Bibliography examples.
When citing periodicals, articles, magazines, newspapers, and blogs, follow this template:
Last Name, First Name. “Article title.” Periodical title. Volume or Issue number (if available, both). Publication date. Page numbers.
In case of online journals, add URL and access date. If applicable, specify database publisher, publication city, and version of an article online.
According to manual, one should not include the Bible in Bibliography.
For parenthetical citation, use:
(Gen. 11:2-4 [Revised Standard Version])
When making reference to whole chapters or books, it is done this way:
Last Name, First Name. Book. City: Publisher, Year Published.
Note number. Author’s First and Last Names, Title of Book: Subtitle of Book (Place of Publication: Publisher’s Name, Publication Date), Pages Cited.
Kirk, James. Metaphysics: Light Particles. Los Angeles: Turner Books.
https://www.site.com . Accessed April 4, 2005.
Stanley, Paul, ed. How to Measure Planet Earth? New York: Research Press, 2001.
Last, First Name and Name Surname, eds., Source Title. (Published in: Publisher, Year).
1 First, Last Name and First, Last Name, eds., Source. (City: Publisher, Year),
s.v. “Entry. ”
Surname, Name. “Title.” Journal Volume, Issue. Number (Year): pages.
Summer, Donna. “English Poetry Analysis.” Journal of Modern Poetry 34, no. 4 (2004): 23-25.
First Name, Last Name. “Title.” Journal Volume, issue. Number (Year): pages.
Last, First Name. “Title.” Website. URL (accessed Month Day, Year).
Name, Last Name. “Title.” Website, URL (accessed Month Day, Year).
Follow this template:
“Title of Video.” (format). May 13, 2018. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=url.
“International Students.” (online video), May 16, 2011, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=url.
For notes part:
Social media entries should be mentioned only in Notes and Footnotes.
Number. Author or Handle, Twitter post, Month Day, year (time), accessed Month Day, Year, URL.
Number. Author or Handle [Location], Instagram post, Month Day, Year, accessed Month Day, Year, URL.
Number. Author, post to Page Title Facebook Page, Month Day, Year (time), accessed Month Day, Year, URL
Interviews are only used in notes, as follows:
Number. First, Last Name, interview by First Name / Last Name, Location, Month Day, Year.
Surname, Name, “Title.” Lecture, Location, Month Day, Year.
1 Name, Last Name, “Title,” (lecture, location, Month Day, Year).
Author. “Title,” Journal Volume, issue. Number (Year): pages. Quoted in Author1, Source. City: Publisher, Year.
1 First Last Name and First Last Name, “Title,” Journal Volume, issue. Number (Year): page, quoted in First Name / Last Name, Source (City: Publisher, Year), page.
Citing is important because it allows college and highschool students to avoid plagiarism and keep within academic integrity. Using someone’s ideas without proper referencing in your research, it is considered as academic dishonesty. Implementing correct rules, one can cite properly. In addition, use our Turabian citation maker for any sources and resource types as you browse through books, magazines, and websites. Most college professors look at writing mechanics and an accurate citing, which is also frequently noted in grading rubric. Looking through our guide, we recommend to combine rules and citation generator for best grade results!
Knowing how much difficult it is to process through numerous sources as one writes a research paper or dissertation, we came up with an unique Turabian Citation Maker. Here are some of its benefits:
What is the difference between Chicago and Turabian styles?
Major difference is in simplicity. Turabian is mostly directed at students who are not going to publish their papers, yet still look professional and accurate. In certain sense, it is like preparation for more complex, specific styles. Chicago, in its turn, has additional rules that are more aimed at publishing and newspapers.
What’s new in 9th edition of Turabian, compared to 8th edition?
According to Turabian manual, there are some changes that include:
When should I use Author-date style?
According to Turabian manual based on latest edition of Chicago Manual, “Author-Date” style (Jones 2004) should be used for Social Sciences and Physics.
Why to use both Notes and Bibliography?
Notes and Bibliography use different formatting, which helps readers to check sources quickly for reference without making a long pause from reading. See our examples in each case.
What is the page layout for Turabian?
Margins should be 1 inch on all sides. Generally, page layout should be no less than 1 inch and no more than 1.5 inches. Font used should be Times New Roman no lesser than 12 points.