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Turabian Citation Guide: How to Cite in Turabian Style

Made famous by Kate Turabian to help college and high school students with citation challenges, Turabian format is a simplified version of Chicago citing style. Commonly used for essays, research papers, theses, and even dissertations, this style format has less complex rules because it is not meant for publishing as of yet. In this handy guide, we will review Turabian 9th edition, so one can see what should be noted and what rules are obligatory. We know that even with professional assistance, writing formats are still difficult to comprehend, therefore, we offer free Turabian citation maker online that can help you with most source types.
Before we continue with in-text citation examples, it is important to consider that Turabian style, like Chicago, implements two different quoting patterns, depending on subject.
“Notes and Bibliography” pattern is recommended for Literature, Arts, and History. What makes it different from usual citation style is use of superscript numbered footnotes or endnotes after each source quoted. It is used to add flexibility, identification, and clearer reference to Bibliography entries.
“Author-Date” is usual parenthetical pattern where author’s last name is followed by publishing year (Andrews 2011). It is mostly used in Physics, Natural Sciences, and Sociology. As for Bibliography, it is sorted alphabetically.

Turabian Style In-Text Citing: Footnotes, Notes and Parenthetical Rules

Let us review examples for both cases to make it clear.
We will start with “Author-Date” style first, so one does not get confused with too much information. Later on, there are examples of “Notes -Bibliography” in-text examples.

Single book author

(Gerahty 2019, 15)

More than one author

(Call and Capwell 2015, 15-21)

More than six authors

(Larsen et al. 2010, 521)

Organization as an author

(Harvard Business School 2001, 39)

When author is unknown

Use resource title instead:

(“Shakespeare’s Imagery” 2016, 12)

Authors with same last name

(Marteen R. and Marteen N. 2016)

Two or more works by same author, same year

Identify sources by title, adding lower case letter:

(Montgomery. 2016a. Title of paper)
(Montgomery. 2016b. Title of paper)

Using multiple sources same citation

Simply use semicolon as in example:

(Jackson. 2019, 21; Nilsen. 2004, 17)

No page number resource

(Rachel 2005, para. 2.42)

Unknown date source

(Clijsters, n.d., 34)

Electronic sources

Turabian In-text citation for electronic sources follows same rules as for print resources. Golden rule here is to include sufficient information in Bibliography that could help to identify specified resource. From URL specified to update and access dates, add as much as available.

Turabian Footnotes

In order to place note or footnote in a research paper, place superscript number for each source. Notes are placed with an indent, either as footnote at page’s bottom or as an endnote in conclusion of a document. Nevertheless, one should still implement superscript numbers with footnotes. Our Turabian citation maker provides both citation options as results are generated. Let’s take a look at Turabian format examples:

When citing books for “Notes”, one should follow this template:

Author or editor; Title; Compiler, translator or editor (if available); Edition; Series name, including volume or number used; Published in, publisher and publication date; Citation page numbers (for footnote or endnote).

Include author or editor’s last name and page number without title. When citation includes more than one source, include work’s title, too.

Endnote example:

1. Andrew Jackson, Metaphors in German Poetry (London: Penguin Books, 2002),
176-182.

When same page is cited in succession with no other references included:

2. Ibid.

If different page number is used for same resource, include 2Ibid., 31.

Electronic sources

Same rules are applied as for print books with inclusion of URL and access date. See both examples in Bibliography examples.

Journal articles in print and online sources

When citing periodicals, articles, magazines, newspapers, and blogs, follow this template:

Last Name, First Name. “Article title.” Periodical title. Volume or Issue number (if available, both). Publication date. Page numbers.

Sanders, Jake. “Gender Studies in New Mexico Culture.” Social Studies Journals 13
(2004): 75-79.

In case of online journals, add URL and access date. If applicable, specify database publisher, publication city, and version of an article online.

Citing the Bible

According to manual, one should not include the Bible in Bibliography.

For parenthetical citation, use:

(Gen. 11:2-4 [Revised Standard Version])

1 Gen 11:2-4

When making reference to whole chapters or books, it is done this way:

“When speaking of Book of Hebrews, one should remember of historical specifics…”

Turabian Bibliography Reference List: Rules and Examples

Author for printed book

Last Name, First Name. Book. City: Publisher, Year Published.

Jackson, Jane. Social Psychology Methods: Anti-bullying. Oxford Publishing, 2004.

Footnotes

Note number. Author’s First and Last Names, Title of Book: Subtitle of Book (Place of Publication: Publisher’s Name, Publication Date), Pages Cited.

1 Jane, Jackson, Social Psychology Methods: Anti-bullying (London: Oxford Publishing, 2004), 44.

E-book author

Kirk, James. Metaphysics: Light Particles. Los Angeles: Turner Books.
https://www.site.com . Accessed April 4, 2005.

Footnotes:

1 James Kirk. Metaphysics: Light Particles. (Los Angeles: Turner Books, 2004), 34-37, https://www.site.com (Accessed April 4, 2005).

More than one book author

Grand, Alfred and John Lake. How to Resolve Business Conflicts. New York: Harvard Books. 2009.
2. Alfred Grand and John Lake, How to Resolve Business Conflicts (New York: Harvard Books, 2009), 88-94.

Three authors

Gillian, Ian, John Michaels, and Warren Hayes. Polar Bear Migration. Tempte: Arizona State University, 2004.
1 Ian Gillian, John Michaels, and Wendy Clark, Polar Bear Migration (Tempe: Arizona State University, 2004), 81-92.

More than three authors

Jenkins, Andy, Greg Lake, Melissa Etheridge, Ryan Clark, and Steven Jones. Urban Life in New Mexico. Seattle: University Press, 2009.
4. Andy Jenkins et al., Urban Life in New Mexico (Seattle: University Press 2009), 88-94.

Edited book citation

Stanley, Paul, ed. How to Measure Planet Earth? New York: Research Press, 2001.

5 Paul Stanley, ed., How to Measure Planet Earth? (New York: Research Press, 2001), 83-96.

Chapter in an edited book

Turner, Tina, “Social Resources.” in Voting and Democracy Principles, edited by David Letterman and Cooper R. Clark, 134. New Jersey: Wing Books, 2002.
1 Tina Turner, “Spcoa; Resources,” in Voting and Democracy Principles, eds. David
Letterman and Cooper R. Clark (New Jersey: Wing Books, 2002), 112.

Dictionary / Encyclopedia entries

Last, First Name and Name Surname, eds., Source Title. (Published in: Publisher, Year).

Gibbons, William and Marcel Prust, eds., America’s Electricity System. (Seattle:
Engineering Books, 2003).

Footnote:

1 First, Last Name and First, Last Name, eds., Source. (City: Publisher, Year),
s.v. “Entry. ”

1 William Gibbons and Marcel Prust, eds., America’s Electricity System. (Seattle:
Engineering Books, 2003), s.v. “Planning Measures.”

Journal articles

Surname, Name. “Title.” Journal Volume, Issue. Number (Year): pages.

Summer, Donna. “English Poetry Analysis.” Journal of Modern Poetry 34, no. 4 (2004): 23-25.

Footnote:

First Name, Last Name. “Title.” Journal Volume, issue. Number (Year): pages.

1 Donna Summer, “English Poetry Analysis,” Journal of Modern Poetry 34, no. 4
(2004): 23.

Website citing

Last, First Name. “Title.” Website. URL (accessed Month Day, Year).

Philips, John. “Wonder Years.” America Weekend Show. http://www.site.au (accessed April 18, 2009).

Footnotes:

Name, Last Name. “Title.” Website, URL (accessed Month Day, Year).

1 John, Philips, “Wonder Years,” America Weekend Show, http://www.site.au (accessed April 18, 2009).

Youtube

Follow this template:

“Title of Video.” (format). May 13, 2018. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=url.

“International Students.” (online video), May 16, 2011, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=url.

For notes part:

1. “International Students,” (online video), May 16, 2011, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=url.

Social Media Citation

Social media entries should be mentioned only in Notes and Footnotes.

Twitter

Number. Author or Handle, Twitter post, Month Day, year (time), accessed Month Day, Year, URL.

10. Stephen King, Twitter post, December 1, 2014 (3.05 am), accessed January 6,
2013, https://twitter.com/stephenking.

Instagram

Number. Author or Handle [Location], Instagram post, Month Day, Year, accessed Month Day, Year, URL.

11. AncientGreece [London Gallery Museum], Instagram post, May 3, 2012, accessed June 2, 2010, https://www.instagram.com/url/.

Facebook

Number. Author, post to Page Title Facebook Page, Month Day, Year (time), accessed Month Day, Year, URL

12. Mattesson Richard, post to Progressive Rock Mattesson Music’s Facebook page,
December 4, 2017 (5.22 pm), accessed February 2, 2000,
https://www.facebook.com/progrockmusic/

Interview

Interviews are only used in notes, as follows:

Number. First, Last Name, interview by First Name / Last Name, Location, Month Day, Year.

1 Michael Tames, interview by John Hewitt, London, March 2, 2016.

Citing a lecture

Surname, Name, “Title.” Lecture, Location, Month Day, Year.

Nolan, Clive, “Music in South Africa.” Lecture, King’s College, August 14, 2005.

Footnotes:

1 Name, Last Name, “Title,” (lecture, location, Month Day, Year).

1 Clive Nolan, “Music in South Africa,” (lecture, King’s College, August 3, 2005).

Citing source in another source

Author. “Title,” Journal Volume, issue. Number (Year): pages. Quoted in Author1, Source. City: Publisher, Year.

Knight, Robert and Hunter James. “Sunday Recipes for Breakfast,” Journal of Home
Cooking 22, no. 3 (2004): 13-34. Quoted in William Trent, Culinary. London: CSN
Press, 2007.

Footnotes:

1 First Last Name and First Last Name, “Title,” Journal Volume, issue. Number (Year): page, quoted in First Name / Last Name, Source (City: Publisher, Year), page.

1 Robert Knight and Hunter James, “Sunday Recipes for Breakfast,” Journal of Home Cooking 22, no. 3 (2004): 13, quoted in William Trent, Culinary (London: CSN Press, 2007), 13.

Why Citing is Important?

Citing is important because it allows college and highschool students to avoid plagiarism and keep within academic integrity. Using someone’s ideas without proper referencing in your research, it is considered as academic dishonesty. Implementing correct rules, one can cite properly. In addition, use our Turabian citation maker for any sources and resource types as you browse through books, magazines, and websites. Most college professors look at writing mechanics and an accurate citing, which is also frequently noted in grading rubric. Looking through our guide, we recommend to combine rules and citation generator for best grade results!

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FAQ

What is the difference between Chicago and Turabian styles?

Major difference is in simplicity. Turabian is mostly directed at students who are not going to publish their papers, yet still look professional and accurate. In certain sense, it is like preparation for more complex, specific styles. Chicago, in its turn, has additional rules that are more aimed at publishing and newspapers.

What’s new in 9th edition of Turabian, compared to 8th edition?

According to Turabian manual, there are some changes that include:

  • Publication year can be repeated in citing that includes publishing month and date.
  • “Ibid” use is no more recommended. Use short footnote style instead.

When should I use Author-date style?

According to Turabian manual based on latest edition of Chicago Manual, “Author-Date” style (Jones 2004) should be used for Social Sciences and Physics.

Why to use both Notes and Bibliography?

Notes and Bibliography use different formatting, which helps readers to check sources quickly for reference without making a long pause from reading. See our examples in each case.

What is the page layout for Turabian?

Margins should be 1 inch on all sides. Generally, page layout should be no less than 1 inch and no more than 1.5 inches. Font used should be Times New Roman no lesser than 12 points.