There were many peasant farmers due to the number of crops that needed to be produced for a numerous amount of people. A guild was a group of craftsmen and each guild would focus on a specific category of trade such as the candle maker’s guild.
The Magna Carta means the great charter, it is a significant legal development in England which acknowledges the will of others rather than god and god only, it is a written series of promises between the king and the subjects, that he would govern England and deal with people and situations with the feudal law. The magna carta rules how no one can be condemned, tortured, or killed. It was one of the most important documents in the medieval times. John who was the king of England in the early 13th century was unpopular and disliked as he imprisoned his former wife, he starved his opponents to death, he murdered his own nephew, he fought wars that were unsuccessful and he also made the taxes more heavier for barons to pay for his expensive wars against other countries, and if they didn’t pay he would seize there house or punish them another way, and in general he was just cruel and had a bad temper. In June 1215 the nobles acted against King John and forced him to sign the charter which was known as the magna carta, when he signed this, he made a promise to not abuse his power with the people of England suffering. When King John died in 1216, Henry the III was crowned King and to maintain the peace the magna carta was reissued several times in the 13th Century until it was made part of English law. The magna carta basically ensures that everyone including royalties must obey the law. It has now been around for over 800 years and it has had an impact on many countries, now it is known as the most famous document in the world, it has become the most powerful source, and is a symbol of international liberty all around the world. Without the Magna Carta we might not have the right and privileges we have today.
The feudal system was created when the fall of Rome happened. Feudalism helps protect communities from violence and warfare, restoring trade, it also secures Western Europe’s society and it keeps out powerful invaders. Feudal system works by organizing people by a hierarchy which is classifying people with the most amount of importance, from top to bottom. Everyone had jobs, certain rights and responsibilities, from the king/queen to the peasant or slave. Feudalism isn’t just about the king/queen giving orders to the people lower than them such as the nobles, knights and peasants. It’s also about giving back as it is a two-way thing. So, the king/queen gives the nobles land, the nobles give the knights and vassals land (fief), then they give the peasants land and protection in return for food and services, then the knights and vassals give protection and military services to the nobles, and then the nobles give the king/queen money and protection. It’s a repeated cycle that keeps on going, and in the feudal system, you can almost never change your social position, whatever you were born as you also die as. Feudalism establishes how no one person or organization can become too powerful, and that power is shared amongst many people and groups. This was the first step to putting limits on the government, constitutions and civil rights. The manorial system which describes how land is distributed is also related to the feudal system, and it made the feudal system possible. In the feudal system the parts of land that were not owned by the ruler or the church would be divided to manor land. Each piece of that land would be owned by either a knight or a noble who is given land as fief from the lord. The land is striped in pieces, so everyone gets an equal amount of good and bad soil, the only bad thing about that is that it’s time consuming because most the time you must walk somewhere else to get to your soil.
The medieval political system consists of extremely harsh laws and even harsher punishments. It revolves mostly around the Feudal system and the manorial system. The magna carta has impacted whole of society, without it we wouldn’t get the right we have today
In the medieval times if you were a noble’s son you would become a knight. At the age of 7 roughly, the sons were taken to another castle to be trained, they are known as a page. They learnt to become strong, ride horses, and master the use of weapons. They also learnt two languages which were Latin and French which they had to read, write and speak. They were taught to dance and the rules of chivalry, which is honorable behavior. Once the boys hit the age 16, they became a squire rather than a page, they then had to work for a knight and do duties such as: getting him dressed, serving his meals, tend his horse, and cleaning his weapons, but squires also used the time to practice wearing heavy armor and using weapons to prepare them for what came next, which was becoming a knight at the age of 20, if he was worthy enough. Once he is ready to become a knight, they had a ceremony where he knelt, and the lord would touch each shoulder with a sword and make him a knight. Knights had to fight for the lord as well choose others to fight for him. Some were professional soldiers and others were just commoners or peasants. There weapons and armor were very simple compared to the men at arms. Knights made up only a small part of the society in medieval times, though they played an important role. They had to fight for the king, and they were given land from the lords, but in return they must provide them with protection. Knights also protected the peasants and the serfs in return for food and supplies. The knights wore armor when going to battle. They wore heavy metal and under that they wore padding to ease pain. The helmet they wore had breathing holes and eye holes to see and breath, there shields were usually made of wood or metal and had a family seal. The sword knights carry was their main weapon and is attached to their waist on the left, they also had knives, a lance, a metal axe, battle hammers and a mace.
The king and sometime the queen sat at the top of the social hierarchy. The king was very wealthy and had a very joyful life due to all his riches and privileges. As much as the king’s role was pleasant it was also very hard. As they must plan and fight wars, as well as fending off challengers to the throne, and keep the country in line. The king kept 25% of the land to himself and allowed the church officials and the nobles to use the rest. Usually royalty runs in a family. So, when a king dies, his eldest son would become king, however this is not always the case, if the king doesn’t have a son, his brother or another male family member would be next in line of the throne. But appointing a king can also come in a different form where the nobles and lords elect a king, or when a council elects a king. When the king is about to get crowned, he must go to a coronation which is a special religious ceremony, where the pope or bishop crowns him king. A king would live in a castle and would have several servants to take care of things throughout the day. Kings said that they were given rights to rule by god in order to keep control, therefore the church and the pope are very important. The education of a king would start from an early age and tutors would be hired, the king would be expected to be well educated. His education also consisted of many sports such as, hunting, sword-fighting and horse riding. If the king had spare time, he would use it for sports and hobbies. The hobbies of a king would usually be chess, checkers, dice games and hunting etc. The kings clothing is inspired by the Romans and Greeks classic style of clothing. Their style included, loose belts, robes which became an important part of the king’s fashion as well as long bands attached to the king’s sleeves. Closed and pointy shoes were also worn. However, after the crusades velvet and many other expensive types of clothing became more and more common.
In medieval times, there was the feudal system which determines what jobs people have and their level of importance. Once you born into a social position, you generally stay that position for your entire life.
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