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Homeland Security (n.d.) defines human trafficking as the use of coercion, deception, or intimidation to get some labor or profit making sex act. Human trafficking is present-day slavery that gained significant consideration for its adverse impacts on society. Trends in globalization and multinational migrations have continued to enlarge economic inequalities and intensify the vulnerability of oppressed populations to various forms of human trafficking. Ross-Sheriff and Orme (2015) indicate that primary forms of human trafficking today include labor trafficking, war and slavery, and sex trafficking. Since the social work profession is committed to decreasing poverty, empowering populations at risk, and eradicating gender-based suppression, social workers must be conversant about human trafficking at macro and micro levels. Social workers also need to understand human trafficking as a significant global threat from three ethical perspectives, including systems theory, empowerment theory, and feminist theory.

The field of social work borrows theories from various fields, including sociology, psychology, and medicine to explore multiple issues within the practice. Systems theory, empowerment theory, and feminist theory can be explored in relation to human trafficking and human rights violations. Systems theory postulates that a variety of factors that work together as a system influence a person’s behavior. In the social work perspective, systems that influence a person are physical and social entities: communities, family, culture, or workplace. System theory allows social workers to perceive a person in the environmental context and understand the various system that perpetuates or will enable a problem. In relation of human trafficking, systems theory evaluates risk factors for human trafficking to allow social workers to correct ineffective components of the system that have a positive behavior on the victim’s behavior. XXXX identified substance use, history of abuse and neglect, poverty, marginalized identities, and homelessness as risk factors that perpetuate human trafficking. Social workers use this theoretical system to observe and analyze systems that contribute to the welfare of the human trafficking victim and work to strengthen those systems. For instance, focusing on cultural or institutional change, advocating for social change, and providing role models, therapy, and support systems help develop a support system for a human trafficking victim.

The empowerment theory in social work requires social workers as agents of change to empower their clients. Empowerment is the capacity of a person, group, or community to expand control of their situations and achieve goals, thus working towards maximization of quality of life. In relation to human trafficking, empowerment proposes a unique framework for developing interventions and creating social change. Empowerment suggests the perspective that human trafficking exists as a result of unequal access or distribution of resources, and therefore social workers need to help human trafficking victims by working for their rights. Social workers at the macro and mezzo levels can create a supportive community environment that provides health and social services to trafficking victims to enhance and nurture their coping skills toward reintegration into society. Social workers as the mezzo level can assist foster community ties and social integration skills among survivors. This can be achieved by enhancing self-presentation, developing an expectation of confidentiality, and helping survivors overcome self-doubt and self-blame. Institutions should also work together with communities to avoid discrimination, bias, and stigma associated with trafficking victims. The empowerment theory calls for a post-trafficking situation that comprises diverse dimensions of social reintegration; in addition to emotional trauma, physical health, and financial support, this framework advocates for human rights and change in political and social relationships.

The feminist theory is a comprehensive trans-disciplinary framework that seeks to understand the experiences, roles, and values of people based on gender. Sexual exploitation is one of the three key determinants of human trafficking, and therefore, feminists question if prostitution or the exchange of sex for commercial value is or can be voluntary. Radical and neo-abolitionists perspectives such as Marxist and radical feminism define trafficking women as structural and institutional sexism and paternalistic ideas that define men’s social control and domination of women. Both Marxist and radical feminism postulates the oppression of women as a result of economic dependence on males continues to be an overarching determinant of human trafficking. Under this perspective, abuse of sex and class entails various forms of prostitution and pornography. Social workers need to integrate feminist perspectives into social work practice as paradigmatic ways to understand the patriarchal culture and its masculine ethos. The alliance between feminism and the social work profession helps end the victimization of trafficked women. This can be achieved through macro social work where social workers can help trafficking survivors by intervening in an extensive system, including advocating for social policy change.

The major determinants of human trafficking are pertinent to frameworks of migration and ‘push and pull factors.’ Ross-Sheriff and Orme (2015) indicate that various push factors that increase the probability of being transferred include inadequate opportunities of employment, poverty, displacement as a result of conflicts, economic and political instability, and limited opportunities for education. Pull factors are situations that increase the probability of victims finding themselves in human trafficking, including higher wages, demand for cheap labor, and increased life opportunities. Social workers at the macro-level of social work are required to help victims of human trafficking by intervening in large systems. For instance, they can lobby to change laws, advocate for social policy change, or organize state-wide activist groups. At the micro-level, the social work practice entails engaging with victims or families to reduce the impact of human trafficking. For instance, social workers are required to help victims find healthcare, appropriate housing, and social services.


Social workers should apply a multisystem approach to reducing human trafficking and its impact on society. The social worker should be involved in prevention programs by educating the community, providing services, and facilitating agency-based responses. A social worker should be ready to recognize common health problems such as depression, fractures, and post-traumatic stress and empower survivors by creating a supportive community environment. The feminist perspective provides social workers with a chance to identify the patriarchal culture and work towards ending women victimization.

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Concern About Preventing Human Trafficking: Problems In Building A Holistic Approach

Introduction This article considers the reasons that, despite efforts, human trafficking persists around the world. The factors that enable human trafficking to occur vary and are interdependent and interconnected (Stop Violence Against Women (SVAW), 2008:1; Truong, 2001:34-35; Van Impe, 2000:p117-118). Human trafficking is a fastest growing forms of widespread transnational business (Shelley 2010, Rosy,2013) and a complex, multifactorial, and inconstant phenomenon (Acharya, 2008, Couto & Fernandes, 2014). Human trafficking is the third most lucrative illegal criminal activity (U.S. Department of...
9 Pages 4120 Words

Human Trafficking And The Hotel Industry

The hotel or lodging industry is filled with a wide variety of options and accommodations for its customers to choose from. Any budget and any traveler can be accommodated, from 5-star hotels to no star motels. With so many hotel options, customers and a steady revenue stream, I am wondering if the hotel industry is taking all of the necessary steps to combat human trafficking. Are these properties utilizing all of the resources to combat this serious issue happening right...
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Transnational Crime And Human Trafficking

INTRODUCTION Millions of people are kidnapped every year. Within the United States, (US), it is estimated that missing persons cases have “increased six-fold in the past 25 years, from roughly 150,000 in 1980 to about 900,000 in 2012″ of which 300,000 people are at risk of being sexually exploited.” (Crime Library, 2007) Of the 90,000 people are missing, only 2,200 are reported daily, to include both adults and children. It is estimated that 58,000 children are abducted globally by non-relatives...
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Human Trafficking: The Modern Slave Trade?

Human trafficking may sound like a word that is foreign to the typical modern mind, but when we dig a little deeper, we will uncover some very unsettling things about what happens underneath our noses every single day. Living human beings are being captured, transported (trafficked) and exploited against their wills. This may sound like the slave trade that had happen in pre-modern times but in reality, such a phenomenon happens even today. Addressing this welfare issue is of paramount...
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Human Trafficking: Srime And Human Rights Violation

Human trafficking has been recognized as one of the most expansive and challenging human rights issues affecting the entire community and worldwide. It involves the recruitment, movement, and exploitation of a person. There are many different types of human trafficking, but the most known ones are sex trafficking, forced labor, and forced child labor. Despite the fact that human trafficking is a major problem in today’s world, human trafficking in the United States can be reduced and possibly eliminated through...
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Human Trafficking And Modern Slavery In The United States

Many Americans believe that slavery in the United States ended in 1865 when the 13th amendment was adopted. Unfortunately, that is not true. Slavery and Human trafficking flourish in our modern age. According to Bales and Soodalter (2010) a U.S State Department study states that approximately 14,500 to 17,500 people are trafficked and enslaved in the United States each year. (p.24) Becoming a victim of slavery and human trafficking is an equal opportunity. A modern slave can be any race,...
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Sex Trafficking: Inside The Business Of Modern Slavery

In the book ‘Sex Trafficking Inside the Business of Modern Slavery’ there are a lot of breakdowns and concepts explaining what sex trafficking and other trafficking are and what comes along with posing some ethical issues and problems dealing with trafficking. In the opening of the book, there is a nineteen-year-old girl by the name of Maya Gaunt who was a sex slave four years in two main red-light districts, Kamathipura and Falkland Road. Maya was born in the Sindhupalchok...
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The Issue Of Human Sex Trafficking

The world as we know it is drowning in hardships and failures. Everywhere one turns, an image of the impending danger of global warming, mass economic failure, riots, genocides, AIDS, cancer, financial disaster, and poverty haunts their view. The race against these issues, that plague our future, has us working day and night to find solutions, with the knowledge of people from every profession, before we are completely submerged in a sea of destruction. Another issue must be addressed among...
2 Pages 706 Words

The Aspects Of Child Sex Trafficking

Human trafficking is one of the most severe forms of human rights violation against men, women, and children. It is a market fueled by supply and demand forces. Poverty, corruption, and illiteracy are all baits for trafficking. Forced labor, commercial sexual exploitation, and domestic servitude are the main reasons for the annual trafficking of millions of people worldwide. Asian nations especially India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan have high levels of poverty that traffickers use to lure desperate citizens. Pedophilia is another...
1 Page 543 Words

How Globalization Has Led To The Spread Of Sex Trafficking In Asia

Globalization is the interconnection of state and continental economies to facilitate the free flow of goods, capital, and services to create utility where there is a deficit or surplus accordingly. Such policies are effective due to the geopolitical and economic agreements formulated in the late 1980s resulting in trade agreements that opened up state boundaries permitting international trade . However, these agreements are not void of technical or functional errors exploited by criminals in the conduction of sex trafficking with...
1 Page 540 Words

Child Labor Trafficking In The U.S.: Political And Ethical Implications

Introduction In the U.S., the prevalence of child labor trafficking is increasing at a substantial rate every year, with little being done about it. According to the International Labor Organization, between the years of 2005 and 2012, the amount of reported human trafficking victims increased from 21.0 million to 40.3 million victims worldwide. Of those 40.3 million, 24.9 million were victims of labor, and approximately ⅓ of those labor workers were children (Sweileh). Child labor trafficking can be defined as...
4 Pages 1655 Words

Sex Victims Of Human Trafficking

Introduction Over the last 10 years, human trafficking has been established as one of the major criminal justice problems around the globe (Nelson 2015). In short, human trafficking is a system of modernized slavery where people forcefully trade human beings illegally for the intention of sexual manipulation and forced labour (PDCA 2017). In term of size and profit, human trafficking is often acknowledged as one of the top three biggest criminal industry around the world, along with drug and weapon...
2 Pages 972 Words

History of Abolitionism and Antebellum in the United States

In my course, I read about the forms of resistance to slavery, pro-slavery justification, life for “free” Antebellum Northern blacks, and all the hateful discrimination that occurred to African-Americans during that time period. I also read about political and social conflicts that created policies that led to the Civil War which was the war that shaped America to where it is today. Slavery in the South all the way to the Antebellum period During the period of the domestic slave...
3 Pages 1162 Words

The Effects Of Media On Human Trafficking

“It was something like a movie you would see that you didn’t think was real, but that was her life and that of so many others who haven’t come to our office.” These are the words of a Catholic Charities caseworker, Rosa Alamo, regarding her newfound friend, Flor Turcio, a human trafficking survivor who lived through two decades of abuse, two kidnappings, one escape and almost getting killed. According to the Human Trafficking Hotline, since 2007, more than 49,000 cases...
4 Pages 1821 Words

Human Trafficking In Egypt

What if one day a stranger came into your life and offered you a better lifestyle, a promise, that you believed but instead, it is just a trick to enslave you into human trafficking? Human trafficking is when a person is abducted and most likely used for forced labor; the most common being sex slavery/prostitution. Crimes like organ trafficking, young marriage, and children subjected to sex labor happen almost daily in Egypt. Egypt’s consequences on human trafficking are light and...
3 Pages 1160 Words

Causes And Consequences Of Human Trafficking In Ethiopia: Cases From Dodola Woreda

Methodology of the study Description of the Study Area and population. Dodola woreda is one of the 18 woreda’s of west Arsi zone, which is, found in the central part of Oromia in Ethiopia. It has a total area of approximately 143246 heckter with altitude ranging from 2370 to 3500 above sea level, which is almost within the range of 95% dega and 5% waina dega climate zone. The annual mean temperature oscillate between 13oc-26oc, while the average annual rainfall...
6 Pages 2550 Words

Human Trafficking Through History

Many societies throughout our history traded money, goods , or services for sex.This isn’t anything different today. Sex is seen whether it is in movies, music, television shows, and social media.The me too movement shows how many women and children were sexually abused by many celebrities and were not given justice. Often, these victims are not taking seriously and people getting accused get away with little to no jail time but this isn’t new. Today 21 million men, women, and...
3 Pages 1264 Words

Human Trafficking Must Be Stopped

Under U.S. law, human trafficking is defined as a child or adult induced by force, fraud or coercion into performing a commercial sex act or being used for physical labour. Trafficking is a sadistic business in which exploiters, disguised as a kind neighbour or businessman, force young women, children or men to sell themselves for labour and sex. Trafficking is a form of modern slavery, victims may die in the business, or if they’re a lucky survivor they leave with...
2 Pages 707 Words

Human Trafficking In South America

Human trafficking within South America is strongly pervasive and detrimental to the community and political system. 80% of the reported victims are women, from there, 51% are adults and 31% are girls under the age of eighteen. Girls are more vulnerable than boys concerning sex trafficking, and most of the victims are from South America. “Peru is the third country with the highest rate of human trafficking in America and places eighth among 167 countries,” says the Public Ministry in...
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The Solutions Of Human Trafficking

There are many issues around the globe that affect the modern world. The society today is changing rapidly, which means there are more problems that range from being economical to social, political and environmental. One of the issues that this society is dealing with is the social issue, human trafficking. Human trafficking is the trade in people, but it doesn’t mean the movement of a person from one place to another. Every year there are millions of women, children and...
3 Pages 1238 Words

Reflection On Medics Against Human Trafficking

This essay will include my reflections on my experiences from medics against trafficking including my thoughts and feelings about each lecture, books and websites I have read and films watched during my self-directed learning, reflections from group work carried out and reflections on how what I have learnt and experienced in this module will impact my practice as a future doctor. When selecting my student selected component for this semester I put this module as my first choice. I put...
7 Pages 3271 Words

Human Trafficking And Global Politics

Human trafficking is something that should be on everyone’s radar. You, your friend or ever a family member could be subjected to this horrendous crime. In a 2019 report, the United Nations Office on Drugs on Crime issued a report on human trafficking with more specifically how quickly the rate of it is increasing (UNODC 2019). As reported by the UNODC, data was obtained from 155 counties stating that “ 79% of human trafficking is formed around sex trafficking,’ and...
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Illegal Immigration And Human Trafficking: It's Time To Get Serious

Centuries ago we gradually came to a halt in slave trading. Seeing human being as commodities of equal standing with other items of trade remains a repulsive thought. And it is a disheartening part of our history as humans. Sadly, the extent of this form of trade happened more in Africa, known as the Trans-Atlantic slave trade. Slaves taken from the continent became the workforce in the agricultural fields of Europe and America. And today they have become the black...
1 Page 459 Words

Human Trafficking: Facts And Statistics

Introduction to Human Trafficking Human trafficking is a well-known crime and illegal trade which seriously violates human rights, it is the third-largest crime in the whole world. Every year there are thousands of people who fall victim to this crime either in their own countries or abroad, most countries in the world are affected by this trade either being the country of its origin, transit, or destination. Trafficking in persons is the illegal transportation or transfer of individuals by means...
4 Pages 1741 Words

Why Human Trafficking Is So Detrimental

I heard a notification sound from my phone, I picked it up and saw the titles of multiple articles from my news app. One of which happened to be about human trafficking. As I looked through the article, I started to realize how much of a serious issue it actually is. It is a global epidemic that affects millions worldwide and is a one-hundred-fifty billion-dollar industry. It’s also the fastest growing criminal activity of the twenty-first century. The more I...
3 Pages 1332 Words

Deciding Policies To Prevent Human Trafficking

Introduction Every year millions of people are trafficked worldwide, including in Pakistan. Trafficking can happen with people regardless of age, gender, nationality or ethnicity. Traffickers may use force, manipulation, false promises or even romantic relationships to lure their victims in. Human trafficking is defined as the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons (the act), by threat or use of force, coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, abuse of power or vulnerability, or giving payments or benefits to a person in...
5 Pages 2060 Words

Economic Factors That Leads To Human Trafficking

According to the participant informants of the study area’s respondents, there is a chronic lack of paid work, specifically for unskilled labour in their settings. Youth unemployment is high in many places. The labour market for young women is often very restricted – invariably more so than for young men. Women are not as highly valued in terms of their labour as men in sectors such as productive business activities such as marketable business activities, investment in mechanized agricultural activities,...
3 Pages 1413 Words

Sex Trafficking As A Form Of Human Trafficking

International lands typically conjure up when one’s mind comes to the thoughts of human sex trafficking. That kind of horrible conduct is not unique in the United States of America. America is the land of the free and yet something as horrific as human sex trafficking takes place every day in our own backyard. According to the Homeland Security Department, the definition of trafficking in human beings is ‘modern-day slavery involving the use of force, fraud, or coercion to obtain...
3 Pages 1458 Words

Human Trafficking As A Human Right Issue

The General Assembly adopted the Global Plan of Action to Combat Trafficking in Persons with the aim of preventing trafficking, prosecuting offenders and protecting victims. It also pays a lot of attention to the government that it should take coordinated action to combat trafficking and calls for the integration of combating trafficking into the broader United Nations programmes to boost developments and strengthen global security. It set up the United Voluntary Trust Fund for Victims of Trafficking in Persons to...
1 Page 467 Words

Human Trafficking And Exploitation

In “Exploitation creep and the unmaking of Human Trafficking Law by Janie A. Chuang, the author main claim is how migration has been a social and economic mobility strategy which has led to a profitable business all over the world. Human trafficking and different ways of exploitation that involve forced marriage and labor under the name modern slavery are considered to affect a significant number of people globally. “Human trafficking can be considered to be a multi-dimensional human rights violation...
2 Pages 862 Words
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