Short on time?

Get essay writing help

General Overview Of Tuberculosis And Its Treatment

  • Words: 1595
  • |
  • Pages: 4
  • This essay sample was donated by a student to help the academic community. Papers provided by EduBirdie writers usually outdo students' samples.

Abstract

Tuberculosis is a disease once incurable but now it can be cured. It basically affects the lungs but other parts maybe effected. It can be treated now. Its symptoms include cough, fever, chills and mucus with blood. Vaccines are available to treat Tuberculosis which decreases the risk by 20% and 60% in children and woman respectively.

Introduction

Tuberculosis (TB) is a communicable disease usually caused by tubercle bacillus (MTB) bacteria. Tuberculosis generally affects the lungs, but also can affect other parts of the body. Most infections don’t have symptoms, during which case it’s referred to as latent tuberculosis. About 10% of latent infections reach active disease which, if left untreated, kills about half those affected. The classic symptoms of active TB are a chronic cough with blood-containing mucus, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. it had been historically called ‘consumption’ thanks to the load loss. Infection of other organs can cause a good range of symptoms.. Tuberculosis is spread through the air when people that have active TB in their lungs cough, spit, speak, or sneeze. Active infection occurs more often in people with HIV/AIDS and in those that smoke. Tuberculosis may infect any a neighborhood of the body, but most commonly occurs within the lungs (known as pulmonary tuberculosis). Extrapulmonary TB occurs when tuberculosis develops outside of the lungs, although extrapulmonary TB may coexist with pulmonary TB.

Save your time!
We can take care of your essay
  • Proper editing and formatting
  • Free revision, title page, and bibliography
  • Flexible prices and money-back guarantee
Place Order

Observations

The main explanation for TB is Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), a small, aerobic, nonmotile bacillus. The high lipid content of this pathogen accounts for several of its unique clinical characteristics. It divides every 16 to twenty hours, which may be a particularly slow rate compared with other bacteria, which usually divide in but an hour. Mycobacteria have an outer membrane lipid bilayer.If a Gram’s Method is performed, MTB either stains very weakly ‘Gram-positive’ or doesn’t retain dye as a results of the high lipid and mycolic acid content of its cell membrane. MTB can withstand weak disinfectants and survive during a dry state for weeks. In nature, the bacterium can grow only within the cells of variety organism, but M. tuberculosis is often cultured within the laboratory. variety of things makes people more susceptible to TB infections. the foremost important risk factor globally is HIV; 13% of all people with TB are infected by the virus. this is often often a selected problem in Sub-Saharan Africa, where rates of HIV are high of people without HIV who are infected with tuberculosis, about 5–10% develops active disease during their lifetimes; in contrast, 30% of these co infected with HIV develop the active disease. Tuberculosis is closely linked to both overcrowding and malnutrition, making it one among the principal diseases of poverty. Those at high risk thus include: folks that inject illicit drugs, inhabitants and employees of locales where vulnerable people gather (e.g. prisons and homeless shelters), medically underprivileged and resource-poor communities, high-risk ethnic minorities, children in close contact with high-risk category patients, and health-care providers serving these patients. Chronic lung disease is another significant risk factor. Silicosis increases the danger about 30-fold. people who smoke cigarettes have nearly twice the danger of TB compared to nonsmokers. Other disease states can also increase the danger of developing tuberculosis. These include alcoholism[14] and DM (three-fold increase). Certain medications, like corticosteroids and infliximab (an anti-αTNF monoclonal antibody), are other important risk factors, especially within the developed world. Genetic susceptibility also exists that the overall importance remains undefined. About 90% of these infected with M. tuberculosis have asymptomatic, latent TB infections (sometimes called LTBI), with only a tenth lifetime chance that the latent infection will reach overt, active tuberculosis disease. In those with HIV, the danger of developing active TB increases to just about 10% a year. If effective treatment isn’t given, the death rate for active TB cases is up to 66%. Diagnosing active tuberculosis based only on signs and symptoms is difficult, as is diagnosing the disease in people who have a weakened system. A diagnosis of TB should, however, be considered in those with signs of lung disease or constitutional symptoms lasting longer than fortnight. A chest X-ray and multiple sputum cultures for acid-fast bacilli are typically a neighborhood of the initial evaluation. Interferon-γ release assays and tuberculin skin tests are of little use within the developing world. Interferon gamma release assays (IGRA) have similar limitations in those with HIV. The Mantoux tuberculin diagnostic test is usually wont to screen people at high risk for TB. those that are previously immunized with the Bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccine may have a false-positive test result. The test could also be falsely negative in those with sarcoidosis, Hodgkin’s lymphoma, malnutrition, and most notably, active tuberculosis. Interferon gamma release assays, on a blood sample, are recommended in those that are positive to the Mantoux test. These aren’t suffering from immunization or most environmental mycobacteria, in order that they generate fewer false-positive results. However, they’re suffering from M. Szulgai, M. Marinum, and M. Kansasii. Igras may increase sensitivity when utilized in addition to the diagnostic test, but could also be less sensitive than the diagnostic test when used alone.

Conclusions

Tuberculosis prevention and control efforts rely totally on the vaccination of infants and therefore the detection and appropriate treatment of active cases. the planet Health Organization (WHO) has achieved some success with improved treatment regimens, and alittle decrease just in case numbers. The only available vaccine as of 2011 is Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). In children it decreases the danger of getting the infection by 20% and therefore the risk of infection turning into active disease by nearly 60%. the planet Health Organization (WHO) declared TB a ‘global health emergency’ in 1993, and in 2006, the Stop TB Partnership developed a worldwide decide to Stop Tuberculosis that aimed to save lots of 14 million lives between its launch and 2015. variety of targets they set weren’t achieved by 2015, mostly thanks to the rise in HIV-associated tuberculosis and therefore the emergence of multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis. A tuberculosis arrangement developed by the American Thoracic Society is employed primarily publicly for health programs.

References

  1. ‘Tuberculosis Fact sheet N°104’. World Health Organization (WHO). October 2015. Archived from the original on 23 August 2012. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
  2. The Chambers Dictionary. New Delhi: Allied Chambers India Ltd. 1998. p. 352. ISBN 978-81-86062-25-8. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015.
  3. Dolin, [edited by] Gerald L. Mendel, John E. Bennett, Raphael (2010). Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s principles and practice of infectious diseases (7th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier. p. Chapter 250. ISBN 978-0-443-06839-3.
  4. Southwick F (2007). ‘Chapter 4: Pulmonary Infections’. Infectious Diseases: A Clinical Short Course, 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill Medical Publishing Division. pp. 104, 313–14. ISBN 978-0-07-147722-2.
  5. Jindal, editor-in-chief SK (2011). Textbook of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers. p. 525. ISBN 978-93-5025-073-0. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015.
  6. Niederweis M, Danilchanka O, Huff J, et al. (March 2010). ‘Mycobacterial outer membranes: in search of proteins’. Trends in Microbiology. 18 (3): 109–16. doi:10.1016/j.tim.2009.12.005. PMC 2931330. PMID 20060722.
  7. Parish T, Stoker NG (December 1999). ‘Mycobacteria: bugs and bugbears (two steps forward and one step back)’. Molecular Biotechnology. 13 (3): 191–200. doi:10.1385/MB:13:3:191. PMID 10934532.
  8. Madison BM (May 2001). ‘Application of stains in clinical microbiology’. Biotechnic & Histochemistry. 76 (3): 119–25. doi:10.1080/714028138. PMID 11475314.
  9. Dolin, [edited by] Gerald L. Mandell, John E. Bennett, Raphael (2010). Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s principles and practice of infectious diseases (7th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier. p. Chapter 250. ISBN 978-0-443-06839-3.
  10. ‘Global tuberculosis control–surveillance, planning, financing WHO Report 2006’. World Health Organization (WHO). Archived from the original on 12 December 2006. Retrieved 13 October 2006.
  11. Chaisson RE, Martinson NA (March 2008). ‘Tuberculosis in Africa – combating an HIV-driven crisis’. The New England Journal of Medicine. 358 (11): 1089–92. doi:10.1056/NEJMp0800809. PMID 18337598.
  12. Gibson, Peter G. (ed.); Abramson, Michael (ed.); Wood-Baker, Richard (ed.); Volmink, Jimmy (ed.); Hensley, Michael (ed.); Costabel, Ulrich (ed.) (2005). Evidence-Based Respiratory Medicine (1st ed.). BMJ Books. p. 321. ISBN 978-0-7279-1605-1. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015.
  13. Lawn SD, Zumla AI (July 2011). ‘Tuberculosis’. Lancet. 378 (9785): 57–72. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)62173-3. PMID 21420161.
  14. Griffith DE, Kerr CM (August 1996). ‘Tuberculosis: disease of the past, disease of the present’. Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing. 11 (4): 240–45. doi:10.1016/S1089-9472(96)80023-2. PMID 8964016.
  15. van Zyl Smit RN, Pai M, Yew WW, et al. (January 2010). ‘Global lung health: the colliding epidemics of tuberculosis, tobacco smoking, HIV and COPD’. The European Respiratory Journal. 35 (1): 27–33. doi:10.1183/09031936.00072909. PMC 5454527. PMID 20044459. These analyses indicate that smokers are almost twice as likely to be infected with TB and to progress to active disease (RR of about 1.5 for latent TB infection (LTBI) and RR of ∼2.0 for TB disease). Smokers are also twice as likely to die from TB (RR of about 2.0 for TB mortality), but data are difficult to interpret because of heterogeneity in the results across studies.
  16. Möller M, Hoal EG (March 2010). ‘Current findings, challenges and novel approaches in human genetic susceptibility to tuberculosis’. Tuberculosis. 90 (2): 71–83. doi:10.1016/j.tube.2010.02.002. PMID 20206579.
  17. Restrepo BI (August 2007). ‘Convergence of the tuberculosis and diabetes epidemics: renewal of old acquaintances’. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 45 (4): 436–38. doi:10.1086/519939. PMC 2900315. PMID 17638190.
  18. ‘The Global Plan to Stop TB’. World Health Organization (WHO). 2011. Archived from the original on 12 June 2011. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
  19. Warrell, ed. by D.J. Weatherall … [4. + 5. ed.] ed. by David A. (2005). Sections 1–10 (4. ed., paperback ed.). Oxford [u.a.]: Oxford Univ. Press. p. 560. ISBN 978-0-19-857014-1. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015.
  20. Roy A, Eisenhut M, Harris RJ, et al. (August 2014). ‘Effect of BCG vaccination against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children: systematic review and meta-analysis’. BMJ. 349: g4643. doi:10.1136/bmj.g4643. PMC 4122754. PMID 25097193.

Make sure you submit a unique essay

Our writers will provide you with an essay sample written from scratch: any topic, any deadline, any instructions.

Cite this Page

General Overview Of Tuberculosis And Its Treatment. (2022, March 17). Edubirdie. Retrieved December 9, 2022, from https://edubirdie.com/examples/general-overview-of-tuberculosis-and-its-treatment/
“General Overview Of Tuberculosis And Its Treatment.” Edubirdie, 17 Mar. 2022, edubirdie.com/examples/general-overview-of-tuberculosis-and-its-treatment/
General Overview Of Tuberculosis And Its Treatment. [online]. Available at: <https://edubirdie.com/examples/general-overview-of-tuberculosis-and-its-treatment/> [Accessed 9 Dec. 2022].
General Overview Of Tuberculosis And Its Treatment [Internet]. Edubirdie. 2022 Mar 17 [cited 2022 Dec 9]. Available from: https://edubirdie.com/examples/general-overview-of-tuberculosis-and-its-treatment/
copy
Join 100k satisfied students
  • Get original paper written according to your instructions
  • Save time for what matters most
hire writer

Fair Use Policy

EduBirdie considers academic integrity to be the essential part of the learning process and does not support any violation of the academic standards. Should you have any questions regarding our Fair Use Policy or become aware of any violations, please do not hesitate to contact us via support@edubirdie.com.

Check it out!
close
search Stuck on your essay?

We are here 24/7 to write your paper in as fast as 3 hours.