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John Winthrop's Sermon: Discursive Essay

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During the 1600s things were not going so well in England. This was a period of an ongoing crisis of people landless and without a job looking for labor service. Most English immigrants sought economic opportunities in London and various other cities but were quickly disappointed. This was only one of many other various reasons, another being that disease (bubonic plague) ran rampant throughout England killing lots of people another reason people were leaving was the low success rate on producing crops. This was called the Little Ice Age where the winters were much more frigid and cold, because of this many English people migrated to Maryland and Virginia to the tobacco fields. In 1630 a Realist by the name of John Winthrop would arrive to model to his puritans that he would build a new society and be a “city upon a hill” and “the eyes on all the people are upon us”.Winthrop believed that he’d be a shining example of puritan perfection and shine like an example to the rest on the world. In Winthrop’s sermon he delivered on the Arbella he preached that unity will be needed.

“All men are part of the body of Christ, and when one part suffers, everyone suffers. It is paramount that all Christians aid, comfort, and love each other, because they are stronger together.”- Winthrop.

Without following God’s rules of their mission, they will fail and will be punished for breaking the covenant with God.

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Pueblo War of Independence.

The 1680s was a time of revolutions to the Spanish Southwest that brought on civil wars and turmoil. The local Pueblo Indians needed to unite to drive the Spanish from New Mexico.

The Pueblo Revolt in 1680 was known as Popay’s rebellion. During this time the Indian tribes were not unified and this is significant because for the first time Popay was able to unify a large majority of the Indian tribes to act as one and also got the neighboring apache and Navajo Indians to also take part in the rebellion against the Spanish rule. Popay unified the tribes by a cord and tied some knots in it to indicate the number on days until the perpetration of the treason and sent the cord by Indian runners to all the surrounding tribes and those who would join would untie a knot. The Spanish were interrogating Indians trying to abolish the religion of the pueblo and also flogging and hanging on multiple Indians which created this large uprising that ultimately led to the Spanish to be driven out on the territory. The Spanish had taken away their idols and forbade their sorceries and idolatries. It was said that the resentment in Indian hearts against the Spaniards had been so strong that this 80-year-old man has been “hearing the resentment since he was of age to acknowledge”. After all the tribes unified and began driving the Spaniards out they made sure to burn Spanish churches and destroy vestiges of Christianity. This has affected history in how you have your religious freedom and that the government can’t intervene with your beliefs and who you idolize.

Middle passage

Colonial North America expanded rapidly in the early 1700s as a result on forced African migration due to the slave trade. Many enslaved people were divided up from their families and villages. Due to the expanded cultivation on tobacco increased the demand for enslaved labor.

Olaudah Equiano was one of many slaves that were kidnapped and taken through the middle passage that brought slaves from South Africa to North America by sailing across the Atlantic Ocean. During this trek across the Atlantic the enslaved people in the hold on the ship were put in terrible conditions where so many people were squished together it was hard to turn around, breathe and the heat was unbearable. Many slaves in the hold of the ship were getting sick which led to numerous deaths 1 in 5 would not make it while en route to America to be sold off to new owners. This story of Olaudah Equiano was significant because he actually made it to Barbados and eventually got his freedom and began to advocate for abolition of slavery. This has impacted history because rising up to slavery eventually led to the Civil war where lots of blood was shed over the enslavement of African American people, because of this war slavery was abolished and the trafficking of slaves from Africa came to a halt.


  1. Okie, Tom. “The American Yawp: A Free and Online, Collaboratively Built American History Textbook.” Journal of American History 103, no. 4 (January 2017): 1121–22.
  2. Russell, Scott C., and J. Manuel Espinosa. “The Pueblo Indian Revolt of 1696 and the Franciscan Missions in New Mexico: Letters of the Missionaries and Related Documents.” American Indian Quarterly 17, no. 3 (1993): 415.

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