Planning as the Primary Management Function and Goal Setting in Non-Profit Organizations

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This essay will discuss planning as the primary management function and goal setting within not-for-profit organizations.

Planning may be defined as a course of action of determining what the performance objectives of a firm are, the method and criteria leading to them and the allocation of resources towards the attainment of those goals (Ferreira & Proença, 2015). It is about being proactive and setting directions by acknowledging where the organization is today, determining where you want to go, and finding the best way to get about it by building a plan of action to attain the desired outcomes or targets (Serven, 2017). Planning involves the aspects of goals or objectives and plans (Robins et al. 2019).

According to Bayuk (2015, p. 344), “We define a plan as an outline of the activities one will execute to pursue the goal, specifying where and when one will execute each activity”. A goal is a desired outcome not yet attained that has a focus on being achieved by providing effort and actions (Gagné, 2018). A goal is often defined interchangeably with aim or objective. Planning should reduce the effort perceived of any easier goals by breaking it down into simple straightforward steps (Bayuk, 2015). According to Ogbeiwi (2018, p. 2) “Goal-setting is defined as problem-based, change-oriented and can effectively motivate attainment, if the goal statement is formulated with a specific and challenging or SMART framework”.

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Goals improve organizational performance by guiding concern and response with a designation of resources and motivating employees to promote goal acquisition strategies (Hollensbe & Guthrie, 2000). Goal setting and the following feedback are fundamental management tools as they provide both informational and motivational functions that compliment organizations work performance (Earley et al., 1990). The two types of goals are stated goals and real goals.

The different types of plans used in organizations may include strategic, tactical, short term, long term, specific, directional, operational and contingency plans (Robins et al., 2019).

In conclusion, one of the most commonly used planning methods in not-for-profit organizations should be mentioned, - strategic planning. Strategic plans are plans that apply to the whole organization and incorporate the organizations overall and critical long-range goals (Robins et al., 2019). Strategic planning is a systematic procedure, methodical approach with a series of logical steps including the defining of a mission statement, long-term goals, analysis of the internal and external environment, strategy formulation, implementation and control (Wolf & Floyd, 2017).

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Planning as the Primary Management Function and Goal Setting in Non-Profit Organizations. (2022, September 01). Edubirdie. Retrieved April 15, 2024, from https://edubirdie.com/examples/planning-as-the-primary-management-function-and-goal-setting-in-non-profit-organizations/
“Planning as the Primary Management Function and Goal Setting in Non-Profit Organizations.” Edubirdie, 01 Sept. 2022, edubirdie.com/examples/planning-as-the-primary-management-function-and-goal-setting-in-non-profit-organizations/
Planning as the Primary Management Function and Goal Setting in Non-Profit Organizations. [online]. Available at: <https://edubirdie.com/examples/planning-as-the-primary-management-function-and-goal-setting-in-non-profit-organizations/> [Accessed 15 Apr. 2024].
Planning as the Primary Management Function and Goal Setting in Non-Profit Organizations [Internet]. Edubirdie. 2022 Sept 01 [cited 2024 Apr 15]. Available from: https://edubirdie.com/examples/planning-as-the-primary-management-function-and-goal-setting-in-non-profit-organizations/
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