Modern slavery is present in all societies across the world, even if governments do not want to recognize it. Moreover, no citizen wants to think that the contemporary and civilized world in which they live is as bad as the middle ages in terms of people being force to do something just due to the fact that other person is coercing them to do so. Modern slavery does not exist for a lot of people because there is not a name for it, people do not give a proper name or conceptualization to the diverse actions that are in fact, forms of slavery. It is very simple, if no one gives it a name and no one talks about it, slavery does not exist anymore and everyone can live with their conscience free of any concern. However, even if those actions do not have a name, they are what they are and they do not change its essence, because it does not matter that a world society changes its name or do not talk about it, those actions exist and they are still a form of slavery and they will forever be unless they are eradicated, which necessarily has to go through the acceptance and acknowledgement of slavery being still alive in all societies.
All of the forms of modern slavery that will be discussed have something in common, which is that they constitute a violation of human rights as they are based in a dehumanization of the human being. The modern slavery is about absolute control of the slave for economic exploitation. In that sense, slavery nowadays could be explained as the negation of the self-determination of the person that is being force to do something that he or she does not want to do and cannot escape from the situation.
Therefore, what this essay will try to achieve is a proper differentiation between the traditional forms of slavery and the ones that are taking place nowadays, even if they are not consider as such by the states or the citizens, because modern slavery exists and takes place in different ways in a lot of lives.
Additionally, after making such distinction, reviewing the different modern forms of slavery and taking in consideration what the international organizations and international law have to say about modern slavery, the essay will focus specifically in sexual exploitation through human trafficking.
The purpose of the essay will be to bring forward the different problems that international organizations and individual states should pay attention to in terms of modern slavery in order to start to eradicate it, because even if it is contemplated in the law as a punishable crime, that does not mean slavery is taking place.
Does modern slavery exist?
The justification of the existence of modern slavery comes with data from the OIT and the Walk Free Foundation, which shows that 200 years have passed since the colonial times, but over 40 million people are suffering from modern slavery.
As the Global Slavery Index evidenced, taking into account violence, coercion, abuse of power, privation of liberty and more factors, there is still an oppressive system. According to this index the governments must take responses to the modern slavery, but the problem is that they agree there is modern slavery, but most of them just not recognize that these actions are taking place in their own countries.
Modern slavery does exist, and it affects all of the citizens, even if they are not direct victims of this type of abuse, it a hidden crime that happens in front of us under may different forms, and also it constitutes a lucrative crime.
There are two major events that happened after World War II that could be described as the cause of modern slavery: on the one hand the big demographic expansion; and on the other hand the accelerated economic and social change that have enriched the dominant classes and impoverished the already poor ones, making the gap between them bigger and bigger.
In the contemporary world the modern slavery cannot be examined without taking into account the socioeconomic reality because it is interlinked directly with the economic tendencies, meaning by that the capitalism world.
Capitalism itself does not represent something good or bad, but the mechanism in which it was established harms some countries. This model might be a reason of the arising of modern slavery because it only focus on the market rules and trends, bringing a impoverishment of the third world countries, that are surrounded by their debts and obliged to follow capitalism.
Adding the demographic expansion to the economic model of capitalism and taking into account that there are a lot of people that live under critical life conditions; the result is an uprising number in the supply of people susceptible of being exploited. The emergent economies see the opportunity to exploit the labor force in less developed countries. But not only that, because there are push factors that urge migrants from poor countries to flee them not knowing that when they arrive to the developed countries they have a lot of chances to be caught into modern slavery, maybe due to the fact that only for being migrants they are going to work under bad conditions.
There is a huge problem to know how many people suffer from modern slavery considering that it is not quantifiable owing to the practices being clandestine, but without having the exact number all people know that there are a lot of cases. “the slave -in the globalization era- is invisible to the law, to society and to the world” (Casadei, 2009)
To finish this section it is of several need to introduce a proper definition of modern slavery, and considering that in the present, most of the forms of slavery carries economic reasons, the definition taken in this essay will be “the complete control of a person for economic exploitation by violence or the threat of violence” (Bales, 2000).