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Analysis of Advancement in Computer Processor: Case Study of Intel

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Q. Advancement in computer processors.

A central processing unit (CPU), likewise called a central processor or main processor, is the electronic hardware inside a PC that does the instructions of a PC program by doing the fundamental arithmetic, logic, controlling, and input/output (I/O) tasks indicated by the instructions.

So the advancement of CPU is very essential for better performance with great power efficiency. So let’s begin from the first to latest processor’s evolution in terms of core, clock speed, cache, ram, architecture, etc.

Firstly let’s see the historical evolution/advancement of processors:

Baron Jons Jackob Berzelius finds silicon (Si), which today is the fundamental part of processors in 1823. Nikola Tesla licensed electrical rationale circuits called 'gates' or 'switches' in 1903. Then the first transistor is created by John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley at the Bell Laboratories on December 23, 1947, and they patent it in 1948. The principal integrated circuit was first created by Robert Noyce of Fairchild Semiconductor and Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments. The integrated IC was shown on September 12, 1958.

Intel Corporation was founded by Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore in 1968 and AMD (Advanced Micro Devices) was founded on May 1, 1969.

Intel with the assistance of Ted Hoff presented the primary microchip, the Intel 4004 on November 15, 1971. The 4004 had 2,300 transistors, performed 60,000 OPS (operation per second), addressed 640 bytes of memory, and cost $200.00. Intel presented the 8008 processor on April 1, 1972. Intel's improved microchip chip was presented on April 1, 1974; the 8080 turned into a standard in the PC business. Intel was presented the 8085 processor in March 1976. The Intel 8086 was presented on June 8, 1976. The Intel 8088 was introduced on June 1, 1979. The Motorola 68000, a 16/32-bit processor was discharged on 1979 and was later picked as the processor for the Apple Macintosh and Amiga PCs. The Intel 80286 and 80386 presented on 1982 and 1985 respectively. Sun introduced the first SPARC processor on 1987. After that Intel presented 80386SX in 1998.

On the other hand AMD also presented their AM386 microprocessor family in 1991. Then Intel also released their 486SX chip in April at a price of $258.00 which bring a lower-cost processor to the computer industry. Intel discharged the 486DX2 chip on March 2, 1992, with a clock multiplying capacity that creates higher working rates. Intel discharged the Pentium processor on March 22, 1993. The processor was a 60 MHz processor, joins 3.1 million transistors, and sells for $878.00. Intel introduced the second era of Intel Pentium processors on March 7, 1994. Intel presented the Intel Pentium Pro in November 1995. Intel reported the accessibility of the Pentium 150 MHz with 60 MHz bus and 166 MHz with 66 MHz bus on January 4, 1996. AMD presented the K5 processor on March 27, 1996, with speed of 75 MHz to 133 MHz and bus speed of 50 MHz, 60 MHz, or 66 MHz. The K5 was the first processor grown totally in-house by AMD. AMD presented their K6 processor line in April 1997, with rates of 166 MHz to 300 MHz and a 66 MHz bus rate. Intel Pentium II was presented on May 7, 1997. AMD presented their new K6-2 processor line on May 28, 1998, with clock rate of 266 MHz to 550 MHz and bus speed of 66 MHz to 100 MHz. The K6-2 processor was an upgraded adaptation of AMD's K6 processor. Intel presented the first Xeon processor, the Pentium II Xeon 400 (512 K or 1 M cache, 400 MHz, 100 MHz FSB) in June 1998. Intel introduced the Celeron 366 MHz and 400 MHz processors on 1999. AMD discharged its K6-III processors on February 22, 1999, with speeds of 400 MHz or 450 MHz and bus speeds of 66 MHz to 100 MHz. It likewise included an on-die L2 cache. The Intel Pentium III 500 MHz was discharged on February 26, 1999. The Intel Pentium III 550 MHz was discharged on May 17, 1999. AMD presented the Athlon processor arrangement on June 23, 1999. The Athlon would be created for the following six years in speeds running from 500 MHz up to 2.33 GHz. The Intel Pentium III 600 MHz was discharged on 1999. The Intel Pentium III 533B and 600B MHz was discharged on 1999. The Intel Pentium III Coppermine series was first presented on 1999. On January 5, 2000, AMD discharged the 800 MHz Athlon processor. Intel discharged the Celeron 533 MHz with a 66 MHz bus processor on January 4, 2000. AMD initially discharged the Duron processor on June 19, 2000, with speeds of 600 MHz to 1.8 GHz and bus speeds of 200 MHz to 266 MHz. The Duron was based on the equivalent K7 engineering as the Athlon processor. Intel declares on August 28th that it will review its 1.3 GHz Pentium III processors because of a glitch. Clients with these processors should contact their merchants for extra data about the review. On January 3, 2001, Intel discharged the 800 MHz Celeron processor with a 100 MHz bus. On January 3, 2001, Intel discharged the 1.3 GHz Pentium 4 processor. AMD declared another marking plan on October 9, 2001. Rather than distinguishing processors by their clock speed, the AMD Athlon XP processors will bear monikers of 1500+, 1600+, 1700+, 1800+, 1900+, 2000+, and so forth. Each higher model number will speak to a higher clock speed. In 2002, Intel discharged the Celeron 1.3 GHz with a 100 MHz bus and 256 kB of level 2 cache. Intel Pentium M was presented in March 2003. AMD discharged the first single-core Opteron processors, with speeds of 1.4 GHz to 2.4 GHz and 1024 KB L2 cache, on April 22, 2003. AMD discharged the first Athlon 64 processors, the 3200+, and the first Athlon 64 FX processor, the FX-51, on 2003. AMD discharged the first Sempron processor on July 28, 2004, with a 1.5 GHz to 2.0 GHz clock speed and 166 MHz bus speed. AMD discharged their first double core processor, the Athlon 64 X2 3800+ (2.0 GHz, 512 KB L2 cache for every core), on April 21, 2005. Intel discharged the Core 2 Duo processor E6320 (4 M cache, 1.86 GHz, 1066 MHz FSB) on April 22, 2006. Intel presented the Intel Core 2 Duo processors with the Core 2 Duo processor E6300 (2 M cache, 1.86 GHz, 1066 MHz FSB) on 2006. Intel presented the Intel Core 2 Duo processor for the PC with the Core 2 Duo processor T5500, just as other Core 2 Duo T series processors, in August 2006. Intel discharged the Core 2 Quad processor Q6600 (8 M cache, 2.40 GHz, 1066 MHz FSB) in January 2007. Intel discharged the Core 2 Duo processor E4300 (2 M cache, 1.80 GHz, 800 MHz FSB) on January 21, 2007. Intel discharged the Core 2 Quad processor Q6700 (8 M cache, 2.67 GHz, 1066 MHz FSB) in April 2007. Intel discharged the Core 2 Duo processor E4400 (2 M cache, 2.00 GHz, 800 MHz FSB) on April 22, 2007. AMD renamed the Athlon 64 X2 processor line to Athlon X2 and discharged the first in that line, the Brisbane series (1.9 to 2.6 GHz, 512 KB L2 cache) on June 1, 2007. Intel discharged the Core 2 Duo processor E4500 (2 M cache, 2.20 GHz, 800 MHz FSB) on July 22, 2007. Intel discharged the Core 2 Duo processor E4600 (2 M cache, 2.40 GHz, 800 MHz FSB) on October 21, 2007. AMD discharged the first Phenom X4 processors (2 M cache, 1.8 GHz to 2.6 GHz, 1066 MHz FSB) on November 19, 2007. Intel discharged the Core 2 Quad processor Q9300 and the Core 2 Quad processor Q9450 in March 2008. Intel discharged the Core 2 Duo processor E4700 (2 M cache, 2.60 GHz, 800 MHz FSB) on March 2, 2008. AMD discharged the first Phenom X3 processors (2 M cache, 2.1 GHz to 2.5 GHz, 1066 MHz FSB) on March 27, 2008. Intel discharged the first of the Intel Atom series of processors, the Z5xx series, in April 2008. They are single cores processors with a 200 MHz GPU. Intel discharged the Core 2 Duo processor E7200 (3 M cache, 2.53 GHz, 1066 MHz FSB) on April 20, 2008. Intel discharged the Core 2 Duo processor E7300 (3 M cache, 2.66 GHz, 1066 MHz FSB) on August 10, 2008. Intel discharged a few Core 2 Quad processors in August 2008: the Q8200, the Q9400, and the Q9650. Intel discharged the Core 2 Duo processor E7400 (3 M cache, 2.80 GHz, 1066 MHz FSB) on October 19, 2008. Intel discharged the first Core i7 desktop processors in November 2008: the i7-920, the i7-940, and the i7-965 Extreme Edition. AMD discharged the first Phenom II X4 (quad-core) processors (6 M cache, 2.5 to 3.7 GHz, 1066 MHz or 1333 MHz FSB) on January 8, 2009. Intel discharged the Core 2 Duo processor E7500 (3 M cache, 2.93 GHz, 1066 MHz FSB) on January 18, 2009. AMD discharged the first Phenom II X3 (triple-core) processors (6 M cache, 2.5 to 3.0 GHz, 1066 MHz or 1333 MHz FSB) on February 9, 2009. Intel discharged the Core 2 Quad processor Q8400 (4 M cache, 2.67 GHz, 1333 MHz FSB) in April 2009. Intel discharged the Core 2 Duo processor E7600 (3 M cache, 3.06 GHz, 1066 MHz FSB) on May 31, 2009. AMD discharged the first Athlon II X2 (double core) processors (1024KB L2 cache, 1.6 to 3.5 GHz, 1066 MHz or 1333 MHz FSB) in June 2009. AMD discharged the first Phenom II X2 (double core) processors (6 M cache, 3.0 to 3.5 GHz, 1066 MHz or 1333 MHz FSB) on June 1, 2009. AMD discharged the first Athlon II X4 (quad-core) processors (512 KB L2 cache, 2.2 to 3.1 GHz, 1066 MHz or 1333 MHz FSB) in September 2009. Intel discharged the first Core i7 versatile processor, the i7-720QM, in September 2009. It utilizes the Socket G1 socket type, keeps running at 1.6 GHZ, and highlights 6 MB L3 cache. Intel discharged the first Core i5 desktop processor with four cores, the i5-750 (8 M cache, 2.67 GHz, 1333 MHz FSB), on September 8, 2009. AMD discharged the first Athlon II X3 (triple-core) processors in October 2009. Intel discharged the Core 2 Quad processor Q9500 (6 M cache, 2.83 GHz, 1333 MHz FSB) in January 2010. Intel discharged the first Core i5 mobile processors, the i5-430M, and the i5-520E in January 2010. Intel discharged the first Core i5 desktop processor over 3.0 GHz, the i5-650 in January 2010. Intel discharged the first Core i3 desktop processors, the i3-530, and i3-540 on January 7, 2010. Intel discharged the first Core i3 mobile processors, the i3-330M (3 M cache, 2.13 GHz, 1066 MHz FSB), and the i3-350M, on January 7, 2010. AMD discharged the first Phenom II X6 (hex/six-core) processors on April 27, 2010. Intel discharged the first Core i7 desktop processor with six cores, the i3-970, in July 2010. It keeps running at 3.2 GHz and highlights 12 MB L3 cache. Intel discharged seven new Core i5 processors with four cores, the i5-2xxx series in January 2011. AMD discharged the first mobile processors in their A4 line, the A4-3300M and the A4-3310MX on June 14, 2011. AMD discharged the first mobile processors in their A6 line, the A6-3400M and the A6-3410MX on June 14, 2011. AMD discharged the first mobile processors in their A8 line, the A8-3500M, the A8-3510MX, and the A8-3530MX on June 14, 2011. AMD discharged the first desktop processor in their A6 line, the A6-3650 (4 M L2 cache, 2.6 GHz, 1866 MHz FSB) on June 30, 2011. AMD discharged the first desktop processor in their A8 line, the A8-3850 (4 M L2 cache, 2.9 GHz, 1866 MHz FSB) on June 30, 2011. AMD discharged the first desktop processors in their A4 line, the A4-3300 and the A4-3400 on September 7, 2011. AMD discharged the first desktop processors in their A10 line, the A10-5700 and the A10-5800K on October 1, 2012. AMD discharged one of their quickest desktop processors to date, the Athlon II X2 280, on January 28, 2013. It has two cores and keeps running at 3.6 GHz. Intel discharged their first processor to use the BGA-1364 socket and highlight an Iris Pro Graphics 5200 GPU. Discharged in June 2013, it keeps running at 3.2 GHz and has 6 MB of L3 cache. AMD presented the socket AM1 engineering and good processors, similar to the Sempron 2650, in April 2014. AMD discharged their first Pro A series APU processors, the A6 Pro-7050B, A8 Pro-7150B, and A10 Pro-7350B, in June 2014. They highlight on or two cores and keep running at 1.9 GHz to 2.2 GHz. AMD discharged their first Ryzen 7 processors, the 1700, 1700X, and 1800X models, on March 2, 2017. They have eight cores, keep running at 3.0 to 3.6 GHz, and highlight 16 MB L3 cache. AMD discharged their first Ryzen 5 processors, the 1400, 1500X, 1600, and 1600X models, on April 11, 2017. They have four to six cores, keep running at 3.2 to 3.6 GHz, and highlight 8 to 16 MB L3 cache. Intel discharged the first Core i9 desktop processor, the i9-7900X, in June 2017. It utilizes the LGA 2066 socket, keeps running at 3.3 GHZ, has 10 cores, and highlights 13.75 MB L3 cache. AMD discharged their first Ryzen 3 processors, the Pro 1200 and Pro 1300 models, on June 29, 2017. They have four cores, keep running at 3.1 to 3.5 GHz, and highlight 8 MB L3 cache. Intel discharged the first desktop processor with 12 cores, the Core i9-7920X, in August 2017. It keeps running at 2.9 GHZ and highlights 16.50 MB L3 cache.

AMD discharged their first processor with 16 cores, the Ryzen Threadripper 1950X, on August 10, 2017. It keeps running at 3.4 GHz and highlights 32 MB L3 cache. Intel discharged the first desktop processor with 14 cores, the Core i9-7940X, in September 2017. It keeps running at 3.1 GHZ and highlights 19.25 MB L3 cache. Intel discharged the first desktop processor with 16 cores, the Core i9-7960X, in September 2017. It keeps running at 2.8 GHZ and highlights 22 MB L3 cache. Intel discharged the first desktop processor with 18 cores, the Core i9-7980X, in September 2017. It keeps running at 2.6 GHZ and highlights 24.75 MB L3 cache.

INTEL I9-9000

This processor is introduced in May 2017. With their high number of core, high power draw, high warm yield, superior, and extraordinary work area attachment, LGA 2066, they are planned to be utilized by aficionados. A portable form dependent on the standard BGA1440 socket was discharged in 2018, including six hyper-threaded core and 12 MB of the cache. It successfully accomplishes 5 gigahertz under perfect conditions.

This processor Core i9 is into the top model in the Core 'I' series processors. The first i9 CPU (7900x) depends on 14 nm technology and the Skylake-X microarchitecture. It highlights four channels of DDR4 RAM and 44 paths of PCI Express (as compared to 28 in the i7). Intended for high performance and gaming, the 3.3 GHz i9 chip can be overclocked to 4.5 GHz

The 9th Gen Intel Core processor are mainly for desktop PC performance to a new level. At the highest point of the stack, their mainstream flagship, the new i9-9900. The first Intel Core i9 desktop processor for the standard users. the i9-9900K with 16MB of cache1 and Intel Turbo Boost 2.0 technology cranks maximum turbo frequency up to extreme up to 5.0 GHz. Throw in high-performing multitasking support powered by 8 cores with Intel Hyper-Threading Technology (Intel HT Technology) to achieve the most demanding clock speed.

Want to achieve even greater levels of performance?

We can overclock confidently with new and advance features like Solder Thermal Interface Material (STIM) and improved overclocking customizations to tweak the processor for High Performance.

So from the above details we can clearly see that the improvement of CPU takes place rapidly with the help of new technologies. Advancement of cores and frequency rate of clocks speed are clearly visible. Along with the CPU performance, the graphic (GPU) performance also increased and the efficiency of the processors increases day by day. Due to smaller architecture, the battery life also increased without harming the performance.

Super Computer’s Processors:

Supercomputers basically utilize customized compute units (called blades) which generally house many nodes (CPUs, GPUs). In the case of the Cray XK6, the most dominant sharp edge on the planet, every blade contains four nodes, and every node houses a 16-core AMD Opteron CPU and Nvidia Tesla GPU, along with 16 or 32GB of RAM. These nodes are associated together with a restrictive interconnect (typically optical). Numerous blades are then stacked together in racks (once more, optically organized), taking into account a huge number of nodes to be packed into an expansive room.

For example, Titan consist of 18,688 nodes (4 nodes per blade, 24 blades per cabinet), every node having a 16-core AMD Opteron 6274 CPU along with 32 GB of DDR3 ECC memory and an Nvidia Tesla K20X GPU, having 6 GB GDDR5 ECC memory. It contains 299,008 processor cores, along with aggregate of 693.6 TiB of CPU and GPU RAM.

In this case a vast advancement is takes place i.e. using of some extremely powerful CPU cores and GPU along with the uses of customized compute units and large number of RAM, ROM, cache etc. for ultra-performance.

Quantum Computer’s Processor:

Now let’s talk about the advancement that will be happening in near future and the most awaited processor is quantum processor for quantum computers.

A quantum computer is developed some of the mystical phenomena of quantum mechanics to deliver gigantic jump forward in processing power. Quantum machines promise to outstrip every processor even the most capable of today and tomorrows supercomputers.

It will not wipe out old computers, But. Using an old machine will still be the easier and most cost-friendly solution for tackling most problems. But quantum computers promise to power in various fields, from materials science to pharmaceuticals research. Many companies are already experimenting with Quantum computers to develop things like lighter and more powerful batteries for an electric car.

The main secret of a quantum computer’s power in its ability to generate and manipulate quantum bits, or qubits.

What is a qubit?

Modern computers use bits a stream of electrical or optical pulses representing 1s or 0s. Everything from your tweets and e-mails to your iTunes songs and YouTube videos is long strings of binary digits.

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Quantum computers, use qubits, which are typically subatomic particles like electrons or photons. Generating and managing qubits is a scientific and engineering challenge. Some companies such as IBM, Google, and Rigetti Computing, use superconducting circuits cooled to temperatures colder than space. Like IonQ trap individual atoms in electromagnetic fields on a silicon chip in ultra-high-vacuum chambers. In both cases, the goal is to isolate the qubits in a control quantum state.

Qubits have some quantum properties that mean a connected group of qubits can provide way more processing power than the binary bits. One of those properties is known as superposition and another is called entanglement.

What is superposition?

Qubits can represent a number of ways of possible combinations of 1 and 0 at the same time. This ability to continuously be in multiple states is called superposition. To put qubits into superposition, researchers manipulate those using microwave beams.

The counterintuitive phenomenon, a quantum computer with many qubits in superposition can crunch through a large number of potential outcomes continuously. The final result of a calculation emerges only when the qubits are measured, which immediately can cause their quantum state to “collapse” to either 1 or 0.

What is entanglement?

In quantum, computer researcher can generate pairs of qubits that are “entangled,” which means the two members of a pair exist in a single quantum state. Changing the state of one qubit will instantly change the state of the other one in a predictable way. This happens even if qubits are separated by very long distances.

No one really knows quite how and why entanglement works. It even baffled Einstein, who famously described as spooky action at a distance. But it is key to the power of quantum computers. In a normal computer, doubling the number of bits causes doubles its processing power. But thanks to entanglement, adding extra qubits to a quantum machine produces a higher increase in its number-crunching ability.

Quantum computers harness entangled qubits in a kind of quantum chain to work their magic. The machine's capacity to accelerate counts utilizing uncommonly planned quantum algorithms is the motivation behind why there is such a great amount of buzz about their potential.

The quantum machines are much more error-prone than normal computers because of coherence.

What is decoherence?

The interaction of qubits with their own environment in ways that cause their quantum behavior to decay and ultimately disappear is called decoherence. The quantum state is extremely fragile. The slightest vibration or change in temperature or any kind of disturbances known as noise in quantum can cause them to tumble out of superposition before their job has been done. This is why researchers Working their best to protect qubits from the outside world and keeping them in supercooled fridges and vacuum chambers.

But despite the efforts, noise still causes lots of errors in calculations. Smart quantum algorithms can compensate for some of these and adding more qubits is also helpful. However, it likely takes thousands of standard qubits to create a single qubit, highly reliable one, will know as a logical qubit. This will help a lot of quantum computer's computational capacity.

And there is the rub: till now researchers haven’t been able to generate more than 128 standard qubits. So we are still many far away from getting quantum computers that we can use in day-to-day life.

That hasn’t dented pioneers hopes of being the first to demonstrate quantum supremacy.

What is quantum supremacy?

In this point at which a quantum computer is completely a mathematical calculation that is demonstrably beyond the reach of even the most powerful computers.

It is still unclear exactly how many qubits are needed to achieve this because the researchers keep finding new algorithms to boost the performance of old classical machines, and computing hardware keeps getting better day by day. But researchers and companies are working hard and running tests against some of the world’s most powerful supercomputers.

There is plenty of debate in the world about how significant achieving this milestone will be. Rather than wait for supremacy to be declared companies are already started to experiment with quantum computers made by companies like IBM, Righetti, and D-Wave, a Canadian firm. Chinese e-commerce like Alibaba is also offering access to quantum computing machines. Some businesses are buying quantum computers, while many others are using services available through cloud computing services.

One of the most useful applications of quantum computers is for simulating the behavior of matters down to the molecular level.

Automobile manufacturers like Volkswagen and Daimler are using quantum computers to simulate the chemical compositions of the electrical-vehicle batteries to find new ways to improve performance.

And pharmaceutical companies are leveraging them to analyze and compare compounds that could lead to the creation of new drugs.

The quantum machines are also helpful for optimization problems because they can smash through huge quantities of potential solutions amazingly quick.

Fig: IBM Q - Quantum Computing

PC's processors are continually showing signs of improvement, quicker and all the more dominant. This is on account of tech organizations always attempting to draw out the next best thing. What's to come is unquestionably greater and more brilliant, with energizing and ground-breaking PC processors not too far off.

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Analysis of Advancement in Computer Processor: Case Study of Intel. (2022, September 27). Edubirdie. Retrieved March 2, 2024, from https://edubirdie.com/examples/analysis-of-advancement-in-computer-processor-case-study-of-intel/
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