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Analytical Essay on Types of Rhetorical Strategies and Devices

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Rhetorical strategies are words or phrases that are used to inform, educate, convey meaning, provoke a response from a listener or reader and persuade during communication. Although the strategies are ordinarily used in literature, we often use these types of words in our everyday conversations without notice. For example, the metaphor, it's raining cats and dogs. This is a common metaphor that describes a heavy downpour. While we are curtained that cats and dogs are not falling from the sky, a general phrase like this describes conveyor sway, someone, to see the perspective we present. Rhetorical strategies can be used in different forms including writing, in conversation or speeches. Persuasion is rarely achieved through a loose set of arguments alone. Rather an effective delivery of arguments follows a rhetorical strategy, combining logical reasoning with appeals to ethics and emotion. We argue that such a strategy means to select, arrange, and phrase a set of confrontational units. Rhetorical strategies involve encoding of three means of persuasion in a well-arranged and well-phrased speech or text, logos, ethos, and pathos. Listeners or readers then decode the encoding, forming their view of the author's logos, ethos, and pathos The research paper, under different sub-headings that are discussed further in successive paragraphs, will explore different models and combination of rhetorical strategies for effective persuasion and communication to adolescents and young adults towards modern family planning services.

Amplification is a rhetoric strategy, which involves the action of enlarging upon or adding detail to a story or statement, phrase or sentence, evoking a sense of urgency and intensity in the audience. This strategy employs repetition to expand on an original statement and increases its intensity, even if one is not quite sure about the idea or the topic, they can figure it out by comparing it to their practical world. Adolescents and young adults would be attentive as the strategy draws them deeper into the presentation and provides a nice sense of flow, even when addressing sensitive or complicated ideas. Amplification takes a single idea and blows it up bigger, giving the reader additional context and information to better understand your point. Restating the statement would not be enough to persuade. Hence, the use of amplification to expand and dive deeper into the presentation on modern family planning to show adolescents and young adults how important it is for a better future.

An anacoluthon as a form of rhetoric strategy is used to introduce a sudden change in ideas or sometimes seemingly unrelated topics in the middle of a sentence. Modern family planning services to adolescents and young adults rely on emphasis on the ideas and topics of presentation to persuade the audience (Llorente-Barroso and García-García, 2015). The presenter would change the tact in the middle of the conversation, almost seemingly into an unrelated topic, depending on the moods of the audience. However, the object remains to persuade, but with the use of anacoluthon, where the original idea is cut off, provoking the adolescents and young adults to guess at what the presenter may have been about to say. The use of anacoluthon, as a strategy, gives a powerful persuasion as it deliberately subverts the audiences' expectations to make a point.

Anadiplosis is another rhetoric strategy that uses repetition at the end of one sentence or clause and the beginning of the next sentence or clause. For example, 'salesman needs to persuade. Persuade customers. Customers are key to any business.' The ending word of each sentence is the beginning word in the following sentence. This rhetorical device draws a clear line of thinking of adolescents and young adults as repetition makes them pay closer attention and follow the way the idea evolves. Used this way, the anadiplosis allows a chain of thought to carry through to the next idea, allowing your audience to follow along with the point of the presentation. The strategy can also help to put more emphasis on the ideas being conveyed, allowing the conversation to stress the importance of ideas.

An antanagoge as a strategy balances negative and positive statements in one. This rhetorical strategy presents a problem and a subsequent solution. When used appropriately, this strategy allows for a well-developed and persuasive approach to communication, whether in writing or everyday conversation (Bernardi, Constantinides and Nandhakumar, 2017). Antanagoge, for example, when life gives you lemons, make lemonade, conveys the negativity in having a bunch of lemons with its subsequent solution, making lemonade from all of it. The device works here by presenting what could be considered a problem, and then providing a solution, to the earlier negative statement. When addressing the adolescents persuasively, this can be a great way to respond to potential detractors of an idea. Suppose you want to convince the religious groups to advocate for the uptake of family planning services, but you think that they might focus more on sexual exposure. Yes, it will be a lot of work to uphold moral standards, but working together will encourage our young adults to make informed decisions for the prosperity of our society.

Apophasis is a form of irony relating to denying something while still saying it. Adolescents and young adults are very sensitive people and often keen on the choice of words, the tone of expression and body language. The presentation would, therefore, be paired with phrases like, 'I'm not intending to…' or 'for the interest of time…', followed up with saying exactly what was not supposed to be said. Adolescents and young adults are responsible for all the unplanned pregnancies, except that they exactly said as their examples. Stating things like this, by pretending you're not saying them or saying the opposite, is very effective in creating an environment that is easily played for humor. Apophasis can also be a useful rhetorical tool for passing on sensitive ideas and attacking the audience without offending them (Foss, 2017). Here, the speaker would not in any way overtly blames the adolescents and young adults for the issues surrounding modern family planning services but is saying that the audience is responsible in some way.

Chiasmus is a rhetorical technique where the speaker changes the order of the words or phrases in a sentence to invoke a sense of powerful emotion. This device works by allowing the listener to have an emotional thought response to what is being said. One of the most well-known and powerful examples of this rhetorical device can be heard in President John F. Kennedy's inaugural speech, ask not what your country can do for you—ask what you can do for your country. This device can be used to provoke deep thought as well as to make a personal connection between the adolescents and young adults and their roles within their society and the uptake of modern family planning services.

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Asterismos is a great rhetorical tool for persuasion and communication, which uses a word or phrase to draw attention to the thought that comes afterward. Listen, hey, so, look, hear this are the best examples of asterismos. The use of such words in a presentation draws the audience into an attentive mood, full of expectations (Daly and Davy,2016). They all have the same effect: they tell the audience to pay attention to a very important idea or point that is about to be said. Even if the adolescents and young adults do not feel more inspired to listen, they would pay a bit more attention because of braking the expected form.

Euphemism is the substitution of a more pleasant phrase in place of a familiar phrase, and dysphemism is the opposite, unpleasant phrase substituted in place of something more familiar. This rhetorical device uses a pleasant phrase or saying to convey a more familiar or less pleasant one (Martin,2016). Consider the following examples of euphemisms in the streets, sexual workers instead of referring them to prostitutes. These tools are two sides of the same coin. Euphemism takes an unpleasant thing and makes it sound nicer—such as using 'passed away' instead of 'died', while dysphemism does the opposite, taking something that isn't necessarily bad and making it sound like it is. These strategies would make the discussion on modern family planning services concerning adolescents and young adults more comfortable, creating plenty that can leave an impression without being outright offensive. People refer to train as a snail, that without any real malice behind it, but snail implies slowness, drawing a comparison between postal mail and faster email. The presentation involves telling the audience how unplanned pregnancies can slow down life, making a point about how a planned future can support goals and dreams in a faster way, better for their profession, and overall life, comparing email to postal mail with the phrase 'snail mail' gets the point across quickly and efficiently. Likewise, if you're writing an obituary, you probably don't want to isolate the audience by being too stark in your details. Using gentler language, like 'passed away' or 'dearly departed' allows you to talk about things that might be painful without being too direct. People will know what you mean, but you won't have to risk hurting anyone by being too direct and final with your language.

Eutrepismus is another rhetorical device commonly used in conversation before without realizing it. This device separates speech into numbered parts, giving your reader or listener a clear line of thinking to follow. Segmentation of the presentation will allow the audience to match the flow with their expectations (Willem, 2017). Eutrepismus is a great rhetorical device, this is because of its efficiency and clarity. Also, it gives your writing and presentation a great sense of rhythm, preventing any possible boredom of adolescents and young adults. This strategy is easy to follow and each section can be expanded throughout the presentation, to accommodate more ideas. The audience understands all the points in an easy, exciting way and consumable format. Eutrepismus helps in structuring the points and arguments in a way that makes them more effective, just as any good rhetorical device should do.

Hypophora refers to a writer or speaker proposing a question and following it up with a clear answer. It is a rhetorical strategy that is used when a writer or speaker asks a question and then immediately provides the answer. This is a common device in public speaking and when in conversation or other communication. Here is an example, why is it important to eat healthy foods? It is important because you can heal illness and build your immune system. Unlike a rhetorical question, a hypophora wastes no time in providing a direct answer to a posed question. Speakers employ hypophora without ever thinking about it (Harmon, Green Jr& Good night, 2015). This is different from a rhetorical question, another rhetorical strategy because there is an expected answer, one that the writer or speaker will immediately give to the audience. Hypophora serves to ask a question the audience may have, even if they're not entirely aware of it yet and provide them with an answer. This answer can be obvious, but it can also be a means of leading the audience toward a particular point. The speaker outright states that he's asking questions others have asked, and then goes on to answer them, so naturally, it's going to reflect his point of view, but he's answering the questions and concerns adolescents and young adults might have about taking up the modern family planning services. In doing so, the speaker is reclaiming an ongoing conversation to make his point. This is how hypophora can be incredibly effective, you control the answer, leaving less room for argument.

Litotes is a deliberate understatement, often using double negatives, that serves to draw attention to the thing being remarked upon. For example, saying something like, it is not smart, is a less harsh way to say, it is dumb, or It is stupid, that nonetheless draws attention to it being dumb or stupid. There is power in the use of not since by using a double negative makes the audience pay closer attention, points out that some slaves still sought superiority over others by speaking out in favor of their owners. Litotes draws attention to something by understating it. It is like telling somebody not to think about the greatest adventure and soon, adventures become all they can think about. The double negative draws audiences' attention and makes them focus on the topic because it's an unusual method of phrasing.

Personification is a rhetorical device you probably run into a lot without realizing it. It's a form of metaphor, which means two things are being compared without the words like or as, in this case, a thing that is not human is given human characteristics. Personification is common in poetry and literature, as it's a great way to generate fresh and exciting language, even when talking about familiar subjects. Objects and nature, like winds, cannot speak or run, and the sun can't laugh. However, the aspect of them speaking and laughing is quite evocative. The audience is provoked to create an image in their minds (Wachsmuth, Stede, El Baff, Al Khatib, Skeppstedt and Stein, 2018). Through personification, we get a strong image for things that could otherwise be extremely boring and hard to imagine.

Procatalepsis is a rhetorical device that anticipates and notes a potential objection, heading it off with a follow-up argument to strengthen the point. It is complicating things from outside, but it is quite simple when internalizing well. It works by confusing the audience by the terminologies in the first sentence. Adolescents and young adults will get confused and anticipate their arguments. Then, the speaker addresses that argument to strengthen the main point, making procatalepsis easy, which is seen after demonstrating it. Anticipating a rebuttal is a great way to strengthen an argument. Not only does it proves putting thought into what is being said, but it also leaves less room for disagreement.

This research paper emphasizes on the fact that humanity is being signed by the rhetoric strategies. However, deliberate living virtues, stillness and solitude mustn't be eliminated in favor of technology. The use of rhetorical tools additionally helps adolescents and young adults to make a solid argument on the positive impact of rhetoric devices in technology and modern family planning services. It proposes a general model of making conversation following rhetorical strategies as means of persuasion: logos, ethos, pathos. The model idealizes the combination as the selection, arrangement, and phrasing of argumentative discourse units. Before computational approaches are developed based on the model, this paper has evaluated its general adequacy in an experiment with human influence. The results provide evidence that humans agree significantly more when synthesizing argumentative texts following the same strategy. Besides, it found that the arrangement of the argumentative discourse units and the re-phrasing of their connections is hardly affected by the strategy at all. A study of the phrasing of the actual units is left to future work. In the long term, we envisage a system that can automatically generate effective argumentation and persuasion. Such a system requires two main types of resources and phrase operators along with information about their effectiveness for specific topics and about the means of persuasion they encode. Given quantities with respective annotations, both resources can be developed using existing natural language processing techniques. It sees this as the next step towards our goal. On the other hand, it feels that there is room and opportunity to reverse the trends.

Work Cited

  1. Bernardi, R., Constantinides, P., & Nandhakumar, J. (2017). Challenging dominant frames in policies for IS innovation in healthcare through rhetorical strategies. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 18(2), 3.
  2. Daly, P., & Davy, D. (2016). Structural, linguistic and rhetorical features of the entrepreneurial pitch. Journal of Management Development.
  3. Foss, S. K. (2017). Rhetorical criticism: Exploration and practice. Waveland Press.
  4. Harmon, D. J., Green Jr, S. E., & Goodnight, G. T. (2015). A model of rhetorical legitimation The structure of communication and cognition underlying institutional maintenance and change. Academy of Management Review, 40(1), 76-95.
  5. Llorente-Barroso, C., & García-García, F. (2015). The rhetorical construction of corporate logos. Arte, Individuo y Sociedad, 27(2), 257-277.
  6. Martin, J. (2016). Capturing desire: Rhetorical strategies and the affectivity of discourse. The British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 18(1), 143-160.
  7. Wachsmuth, H., Stede, M., El Baff, R., Al Khatib, K., Skeppstedt, M., & Stein, B. (2018, August). Argumentation synthesis following rhetorical strategies. In Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Computational Linguistics (pp. 3753-3765).
  8. Willem, L. M. (2017). Galdós's Segunda Manera: Rhetorical Strategies and Affective Response. The University of North Carolina Press.
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