Black Deaf Culture: Analytical Essay

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Abstract

This study looks to gain a better understanding of the Black Deaf community by examining their history, culture, and social experiences. Black Deaf history has been neglected for decades and it still is to this day. While there have been a diverse number of books, research studies, films, and articles on Deaf life, hardly any have focused on the experiences of Black Deaf individuals.

I think that by studying the history of the Black Deaf community, we will gain a better understanding of the human diversity and the broadness of the term “disabled”.

Keywords: African American, Black American Sign Language, deaf, hard of hearing, oppressed

i. Description and definition of the culture or group

Black Deaf individuals belong to a very particular social group in our communities. Black Deaf Culture is formed by two cultures and communities: Deaf and African American (Ogunyipe, B. 2011).

Black Deaf individuals frequently deal with double prejudice against them with regard to their race and communication barriers (Ogunyipe, B. 2011). These individuals have a double minority role in society but based on a research completed by Anderson & Grace, 87% of Black Deaf adolescents identified as Black first, and 13% identified as Deaf first (Anderson & Grace, 1991).

The 87% of them stated that they identify as black first because the color of their skin is more visible than their hearing and communication problems. One of the participants stated, “You see, I am black first. My deafness is not noticed until I speak or use my hands to communicate” (Anderson & Grace, 1991).

ii. History of the oppression they have experienced

The discrimination of black people can be traced back to the beginning of segregation era (17th- 20th centuries) were Black Deaf individuals were not accepted as part of the Deaf community nor the African American community (“Black Deaf Culture Through the Lens of Black Deaf History”, n.d). Groups and Organizations, such as The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, The Congress of Racial Equality, The Southern Christian Leadership Conference, and The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee worked together and fought for equality and the human rights of the African American community ( Janken, K. R., n.d)

But the concerns and social injustices that the Black Deaf community suffered were not the focus of any of these civil rights organizations. In fact, the Black Deaf community had no communication access with these organizations and their leaders (Ogunyipe, B. 2011).

It was not until a year after the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, that the National Association of the Deaf (NAD) allowed Black Deaf individuals to form part of their organization in 1965. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 aimed to end the segregation and discrimination against color, race, religion, sex or national origin. Later on, in 1999 it expanded and included disabled Americans, elderly people, and women as part of the Civil Rights Act (“The Civil Rights Act of 1964”,2010). For over 100 years, black deaf individuals were separated from the white deaf community and forced to attend separate educational programs. These programs were offered on separate campuses or in separate buildings isolated from white individuals with hearing problems. This separation led to the development of a Black American Sign Language (BASL) (Berke, J., 2018).

In 2014, Amy Stretten conducted an interview to a Black Deaf woman named Sheena Cobb, who talked about the difference between the American Sign Language (ASL) and the Black American Sign Language (BASL). Cobb stated that BASL tends to be more expressive than ASL. Black Deaf individuals tend to utilize more two-handed signs, in different positions, in a larger signing space, and with more repetition than with mainstream ASL signs (Stretten, A. 2014). Although it is noted that black sign language varies from white sign language on the lexical morphology and phonology level, there is no available literature to prove the differences between them and the impact on educational success (McCaskill, 2005).

iii. History of social justice efforts on their behalf

As a result of being denied membership in Deaf Organizations, Black deaf organizations arouse during the 1950s in cities with considerable numbers of Black Deaf individuals such as Atlanta, Baltimore, Chicago, Los Angeles, and Washington (Ogunyipe, B. 2011).

In 1980, a group of Black Deaf leaders presented a list of concerns to the National Association of the Deaf (NAD) Convention held in Cincinnati. Some of these issues were, the deficiency of attentiveness to the concerns of Black Deaf Americans and the lack of representation of Black Deaf individuals. They presented a request for the NAD to communicate better with the Black Deaf community, encourage the involvement of minority groups within the Deaf organizations, and recruit more Black Deaf children in NAD Youth Leadership Camps (Ogunyipe, B. 2011).

In 1981, the first Black Deaf Conference, “Black Deaf Experience” was held at Howard University in Washington. The objectives of the conference were:

  • To better inform the community about being part of two minority groups: Black and Deaf in America (“National Black Deaf Advocates”, n.d).
  • To identify and analyze the social, economical, educational, religious, political, and health issues of the Black deaf community (“National Black Deaf Advocates”, n.d).
  • To develop strategies and problem-solving techniques that their members can take back to their communities (“National Black Deaf Advocates,” n.d).

The National Black Deaf Advocates (NBDA) established in 1982, was the first organization to advocate for Black deaf individuals in the United States. The NBDA advocates for the civil rights and equal opportunities to education, employment, and social services for the Black Deaf and individuals with Hard of Hearing. (“National Black Deaf Advocates”, n.d)

“Today, the National Black Deaf Advocates has over 30 local chapters and sponsors leadership training programs for deserving high school and college students, a Miss Black Deaf America Pageant, leadership opportunities at the local and national levels, workshops at regional and national conferences, and a scholarship program for Black Deaf college students” (“National Black Deaf Advocates, n.d”).

In 1987, the NBDA founded the first National Alliance of Black Interpreters (NAOBI). Their mission is to promote excellence and empowerment among African Americans in the Sign Language interpreting profession in a multi-cultural, multi-lingual environment (“National Alliance of Black Interpreters”, 2019).

In 1997 the NBDA celebrated its 15th anniversary at the National Conference, “Black Deaf Leadership In the 21st Century: Preparing the Way”, in Washington, D.C. The National Black Deaf Advocates conduct annual regional and national conferences dedicated to enlarging and empowering their community. (“Black Deaf Culture”, n.d)

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iv. Progress and setbacks

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 gave the black community a sense of hope that they would be able to form part of the American way of life, just as the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 later did for the hearing-impaired community (Rittenhouse, Johnson, Overton, Freeman, & Jaussi, 1991)

Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 is a law that ensures that individuals with disabilities will not be excluded from programs that receive federal financial assistance, such as public schools (“Laws impacting students who are deaf or hard of hearing”, 2015).

In 1975, President Gerald Ford passed a new law “the Education for All Handicapped Children Act”, now known as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) states that students who are deaf or hard of hearing must receive free and appropriate education with the needed accommodations. (“Laws impacting students who are deaf or hard of hearing”, 2015).

In 1990, President George H.W. Bush passed The Americans with Disabilities Act which ensures deaf children have access to state and local governments, public accommodations, commercial facilities, transportation, and telecommunications (“Laws impacting students who are deaf or hard of hearing”, 2015).

Setbacks

“A major source of controversy between Deaf people and those who support a “social/cultural” view of Deafness as “a life to be lived” and those who see deafness within a “medical model” as a “condition to be cured” has been over the cochlear implantation of young deaf children” (Hyde, M. & Des Power, 2006). Studies show that there are considerably differences of cochlear implantation among groups of children who are potential candidates for implants based on race, presence of an additional disability, and socioeconomic status (SES) (Hyde, M. & Des Power, 2006).

In a study made by (Stern, Yueh, Lewis, Norton & Sie 2005), they found that the relative rate of cochlear implantation in White and Asian American children was five times higher than Hispanic children and 10 times higher than African American children (Stern et al., 2005). There has been no proof of race or culture being the main factor behind the cochlear implantation rates, but rather the child’s family socioeconomic status (SES) and access to governmental resources and financial support (Stern et al., 2005).

For over decades, there have been inequalities among minority groups based on their race, language, socioeconomic status, and deaf children with additional disabilities in the rate of implantation in the country. White deaf children are more likely to be implanted than those of other races like Black, Hispanic and Asian, children from higher socioeconomic statuses are more likely to receive implants than children from lower statuses, and deaf children without disabilities are than those with one or more additional disabilities (Stern et al., 2005).

v. Status quo of this group

The National Black Deaf Advocates and Gallaudet University Archives have partnered together to develop an archives committee to further develop and expand the NBDA Archives program (“Black deaf history”, n.d).

One of the NBDA’s biggest concerns is to enhance the educational and economic advancement of Black Deaf and hard-of-hearing people. They support educational advancement by providing scholarships to undergraduate and graduate Black deaf and hard of hearing students with financial needs (“Black deaf history”, n.d).

The NBDA currently counts with two support programs for youth and young adults in the Black deaf community: Collegiate Black Deaf Student Leadership Institute and Youth Empowerment Summit (Y.E.S!) (“Black deaf history”, n.d).

“The Collegiate Black Deaf Student Leadership Institute was established in 2005 as an intensive one-week leadership training opportunity for minority college students. The CBDSLI’s purpose is to “develop and practice leadership skills, and to prepare the next generation of Black deaf and hard of hearing leaders to serve in diverse deaf & world communities” (“College & Youth”, n.d).

“Youth Empowerment Summit (Y.E.S.) was established in 1997 to offer one-week educational leadership training and challenging activities for Black Deaf and hard of hearing youth. This program applies to youths between the ages of 13 to 17 from homeschooled and deaf institutions” (“College & Youth”, n.d).

vi. Projections on the future of the social justice movement plus a listing of three local resources and the services they offer, for a potential client from this group.

The first and largest resource for the black deaf community is the organization National Black Deaf Advocates. The NBDA holds annual conferences and has more than 30 active chapters nationwide. (“National Black Deaf Advocates”, n.d). Another well-known organization is, the National Alliance of Black Interpreters established in 1999, its mission is to educate and prepare African-American interpreters to advocate for deaf and hard of hearing people in a non-threatening supportive environment (“National Alliance of Black Interpreters”, n.d)

Unfortunately, we don’t count with any local resources for Black Deaf individuals in the Hattiesburg area, but I found a list of available options in nearby cities and/or online resources.

Alabama Black Deaf Advocates

Alabama Black Deaf Advocates is a nonprofit organization focused on providing human services for black deaf people. It was founded in 2014, Alabama Black Deaf Advocates is headquartered in Bessemer, AL. (“Black Deaf Advocates”, 2019)

  • Chapter #32
  • Year Established: 2006
  • Contact Person: LaShawn Washington
  • Facebook: Alabama Black Deaf Advocates
  • Mailing Address: Alabama Black Deaf Advocates
  • P.O. Box 899
  • Bessemer, AL 35021-0899

American Association of the Deaf-Blind

The American Association of the Deaf-Blind provides resources to deaf-blind people to ensure that they accomplish their maximum potential through increased independence, productivity, and integration into the community. Some of the activities they do include, completing research on the benefits of technology for dead blind people and how can it be more accessible and affordable for all deaf-blind, enhance the quality of interpreting services for deaf-blind people, and provide free training and workshops (“American Association of the Deaf-Blind”, 2019)

  • Contact information: aadb-info@aadb.org
  • Year Established: 1937
  • Mailing Address: 248 RAINBOW DRIVE #14864
  • Livingston, TX 77399-2048
  • Facebook: AADB1937

The National Association of the Deaf (NAD)

“The National Association of the Deaf was founded in 1880 and it is run by deaf people who advocate for deaf rights. Their mission is to preserve, protect and promote the civil, human and linguistic rights of deaf and hard of hearing people in the United States” (“National Association of the Deaf”, 2019).

  • Contact information: nad.info@nad.org
  • Established: 1880
  • Facebook: National Association of the Deaf-NAD
  • Mailing Address: 8630 Fenton St, Ste 820
  • Silver Spring, MD 20910

Although there is not much information about the Black deaf community and the social injustices, limitations, challenges, and discrimination they suffer, there is a few books and articles written about the black deaf culture and what it means to be a part of two minority groups (“Black Deaf Culture Through the Lens of Black Deaf History”, n.d)

Books:

  1. Sounds Like Home, by Mary Herring Wright. The author talks about her experience of growing up as a black deaf woman in the South.
  2. Black and Deaf in America, Are We That Different? by Ernest Hairston and Linwood Smith. The books talk about some of the problems of the Black Deaf community, including undereducation and underemployment (Anderson, G. B., & Dunn, L. M. 2016).
  3. Deaf, Dumb and Black: An Account of the Life of a Family, by Mary Miller-Hall.

References

  1. Anderson, G. B., & Dunn, L. M. (2016). Assessing black deaf history: 1980s to the present. Sign Language Studies, 17(1), 71–77. https://doiorg.lynx.lib.usm.edu/10.1353/sls.2016.0024
  2. Anderson, Glenn B. and Cynthia S. Grace (1991). “Black deaf adolescents: A diverse and underserved population.” The Volta Review 93.5: 73-86.
  3. Berke, J. (2018). Segregation in Deaf Schools. Retrieved from https://www.verywellhealth.com/deaf-history-segregation-deaf-schools-1046550
  4. Black deaf culture through the lens of black deaf history. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://dcmp.org/learn/366-black-deaf-culture-through-the-lens-of-black-deaf-history
  5. Borum, V. (2012). Perceptions of communication choice and usage among African American hearing parents: Afrocentric cultural implications for African American deaf and hard of hearing children. American Annals of the Deaf, 157(1), 7–15. https://doi-org.lynx.lib.usm.edu/10.1353/aad.2012.1606
  6. Center, C., & Gallaudet University. (2015). Retrieved from https://www3.gallaudet.edu/clerc-center/info-to-go/legislation-and-policies/laws-impacting-students.html
  7. Foster, S., & Kinuthia, W. (2003). Deaf persons of Asian American, Hispanic American, and African American backgrounds: A Study of Intraindividual Diversity and Identity. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 8(3), 271–290. https://doi-org.lynx.lib.usm.edu/10.1093/deafed/eng015
  8. History.com Editors. (2010) Civil Rights Act of 1964. Retrieved from https://www.history.com/topics/black-history/civil-rights-act
  9. History – NAOBI-DC. (2019). Retrieved from https://www.naobidc.org/about/history/
  10. Janken, Kenneth R. (n.d) “The Civil Rights Movement: 1919-1960s.” Freedom’s Story, TeacherServe©. National Humanities Center. Retrieved from:
  11. Hyde M., Des Power (2006) Some Ethical Dimensions of Cochlear Implantation for Deaf Children and Their Families, The Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, Volume 11, Issue 1, Winter 2006, Pages 102–111, https://doi.org/10.1093/deafed/enj009
  12. Myers, C., Clark, M. D., Musyoka, M., Anderson, M. L., Gilbert, G. L., Agyen, S., & Hauser, P. C. (2010). Black deaf individuals’ reading skills: Influence of ASL, culture, family characteristics, reading experience, and education. American Annals of the Deaf, 155(4), 449–457. https://doi-org.lynx.lib.usm.edu/10.1353/aad.2010.0044
  13. Ogunyipe, Benro. (2016) 'Black deaf culture through the lens of black deaf history.' DCMP.org. Described and Captioned Media Program, (n.d).
  14. Rittenhouse, R.K., Johnson, C., Overton, B., Freeman, S., & Jaussi, K. (1991). The Black and Deaf Movements in America Since 1960: Parallelism and an Agenda for the Future. American Annals of the Deaf 136(5), 392-400. doi:10.1353/aad.2012.0403.
  15. Sellers, F. S. (2012, September 17). Sign language that African Americans use is different from that of whites. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/lifestyle/style/sign-language-that-african-americans-use-is-different-from-that-of-whites/2012/09/17/2e897628-bbe2-11e1-8867-ecf6cb7935ef_story.html
  16. Shawn S. Nelson Schmitt, Irene W. Leigh, Examining a sample of black deaf individuals on the deaf acculturation scale, The Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, Volume 20, Issue 3, July 2015, Pages 283–295, https://doi.org/10.1093/deafed/env017
  17. Stern, R. E., Yueh, B., Lewis, C., Norton, S., & Sie, K. Y. (2005). Recent epidemiology of pediatric cochlear implantation in the United States: Disparity among children of different ethnicity and socio-economic status. Layrngoscope , 115, 125–131.
  18. Stretten, A. (2017). ASL and Black ASL: Yes, there's a difference. Retrieved from https://splinternews.com/asl-and-black-asl-yes-theres-a-difference-1793840928
  19. The Black and Deaf Movements in America Since 1960: Parallelism and an Agenda for the Future. (1991). American Annals of the Deaf., 136(5), 392–400.
  20. Welcome to NBDA. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.nbda.org/
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Black Deaf Culture: Analytical Essay. (2022, September 27). Edubirdie. Retrieved April 23, 2024, from https://edubirdie.com/examples/black-deaf-culture-analytical-essay/
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