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Crime Prevention and Control in Indian Society

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‘CRIME’ is a social and economic phenomenon, crime is as ancient as human. Halsbury defines ‘crime’ as an unlawful act which is an offence against the public, and the perpetrator of that act is liable to legal punishment. Women who constitute half of the population and without whom the survival of the world would have been impossible, are going through hell in this male dominated world. In the current scenario, either in domestic sphere or in the outer world women and children have been sexually exploited. Sexual crime against women and children are higher when compared to other crimes. Sex crime is one of the crimes which exist in all societies. Eve teasing, indecent assault, obscenity, rape, incest, immoral trafficking etc, are some of sexual crimes against the women and children. Countries like India has recorded an upward trend in recent decades in sexual delinquency. We have a lot of women based organizations and many government policies, schemes in favour of women to prevent and protect them and many acts and amendments for children to protect them and give then a basic education. But still the crime against women and children are not controllable. The reason behind this was people were unaware of the laws, policies and schemes available for them. And there is a lack of women in national political office.

Indian society always revered women. History says that man and women represent the two half of the divine body. The superiority and inferiority between man and women was not there in ancient time. According to Mahabharata by cherishing the women one virtually worships the goddess of prosperity. In vedic period , women enjoyed equal rights as men. It was mentioned in many religious books. But after many years when other countries started to invade India they attacked and abused women and children. So to protect them from these cruel situations, they did not allowed the women and children to go out. Later on this practice became as a custom. Men did not allowed the women to participate in any of the activities. This situation leads the entire society to a male chauvinistic one. Male chauvinism means men who convey an attitude of superiority towards women. Later on this became as a traditional and customary practice. They allotted certain duties to women that alone she can do. Taking care of children, family and doing all the household works are the duties allotted to women. She can’t do anything against men. Men had a thought that women are created to satisfy all their needs alone. They didn’t consider women as a human being. They treated them as slaves. The impacts or effect of the male chauvinism is comparatively higher. The first impact of this was the literacy rate was totally reduced. In ancient times, girl babies are killed at the time of birth itself. Now the consequence of this was, the population of women is reduced to half. As per the census carried out by the government of India, there are 933 females for every 1000males in our country. In Goa, a man can remarry if his wife does not give birth to any male child till the age of 30. This law just shows how women are treated. After many decades slowly women started to raise their voice against men for their basic rights, like right to basic education, freedom of speech etc. After a lot of fights and struggles now women are getting their education and they can able to understand what is good and what is bad and they are capable of making their own decisions in their life. But in this 21’st century women are not safe. In ancient time women were not given any freedom. When a women is born in a family she is under the control of her father or brother. She should obey their words and act in accordance with that. Once she get married she is under the control of her. The words of husband is considered as the words of god. After her husband the control of that women will pass to his son. This is the life cycle of women. And this system will pass by one generation to another. But in this 21’st century though we have all the rights and freedom we can’t able to enjoy it. Women and children are not safe. There is no equality between men and women. Still the discrimination between men and women prevails in the society.

Women and girls have restricted mobility, access to education, access to health facilities, and lower decision making power, and they experience higher rates of violence against them. Political Participation is also restricted to women. Rural women as compared to women in urban areas faced inequality at much higher rates in all aspects of life. Women who are in urban areas enjoy relatively higher access to economic opportunities, health, and education, and they expirence less domestic violence when compared to women who are in rural areas. In rural areas women are further discriminated in the name of class and caste. Women from lower caste are unable to access health and educational services, lack decision making power, and they will face higher level of violence.

A survey taken by Thomson Reuters Foundation in the year 2018 reports that India is the most dangerous country for sexual violence against women. Not only sexual violence but also there are many crimes like chain snatching, molestation etc, happening against women in recent years.

Nirbhaya case which was happened in the year 2012 december says what is the place of women in this society. A 23- year old women , Jyoti singh , and her boyfriend were returning home on 16th December 2012 after watching a movie. They both boarded the bus at about 9:30 pm. There were totally six members in the bus including the driver. Boyfriend had a doubt when the bus deviated from its normal route and when the doors were shut. When he went and ask them he was beaten, gagged and knocked unconscious with an iron rod. And they dragged jyoti to the rear of the bus and all the members in the bus raped her mercilessly. Later Jyoti and her boyfriend throw out of the bus. Despite of all the treatment jyoti passed away. Death penalty was given to all the criminals who Involved in this merciless activity. But still that death penalty was not executed to the convicts. 8years gone but still the convicts are not hanged. This shows what is the place of women in an society.

Last year same thing was happened in Hyderabad. 26 years old veterinary doctor was gang raped by 4 men. She was burnt alive. Lot of protest and strikes happened. This rape case shaked the whole country. Atlast the four acquist shot dead by the police officerswhen they try to escape from them during investigation.

These two cases shows what is the position of women in an society and how the society treats the women. After nirbhaya case the government made lots of policies and schemes in order to protect the women and children from these cruel activities. But still no use of those laws in this 8 years crime against women and children are increased rapidly. There are many jyoti singh and priyanka redy are there in our society. Who face the same problem. But the thing is these two cases happened in public so people could able to know about this. But there are many cases which isnot coming out due to many reasons.

Technology may develop. But the position of women remains the same when there is no change in the society. The society should not consider women as the weaker section of the society. It should help them to achive more in life as how it helps the men. Society should not portrait women as thing which satisfy mens need. The real development of a country depends upon both men and women. Single hand can’t make a sound . so we need to join our hands to make a sound country. That is the real development. When the place and status of women change the country will reach its height for sure.

Crime against women occurs throughout the life cycle of women from prebirth, infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood to sentence. Women may be the victims of any general crimes like murder, robbery, cheating etc. The crimes which are directed particularly against women are characterized as “CRIMES AGAINST WOMEN”.

Women in the present world were not physically secured. Physical crimes against women increased rapidly. Women in all over the world lack physical security. Map which is given below says the “PHYSICAL SECURITY OF WOMEN” all over the world.

[image: ]This map shows the physical security of women all over the world. We can able to see only in very few countries women are secure. Most of the countries throughout the world does not provide physical security foe women. This survey was taken by WOMAN SATS PROJECT in the year 2019.

Rape, the most frequently used word now a days in our society. The word “rape” originates from the Latin word “rapere” which means ‘to seize’ or ‘take by force’. Rape literally means a forcible seizure. An sexual intercourse with a women without her consent by fraud or force.

Rape destroys the entire psychological of a women and pushes her into deep emotional crisis. The physical scar may be cured, but the mental scar cannot be cured. It is estimated that approximately 35% of women world widely have experienced some form of sexual harassment in their life time. Some seeks legal remedy for this. And some people don’t approach or seek legal remedy because of many reasons.

Women whose age is between 16-19 are four times likely to be the victims of rape or sexual assault and women who is between the age of 18-24 are three times likely to be the victims of the rape or sexual assault. Transgender are twice likely to be the victims of the rape and sexual assault.

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THE NATIONAL CRIME BUREAU (NCRB) has released the annual CRIME IN REPORT 2017on October 28. According to that report 3,59,849 cases were reported against women in 2017. This is the rape statistics in India. When compared to other countries the rape case reported in India was less because the reason is the rape victim’s have lot of internal and external issues. The main reason why the rape victims are not reporting are as follows

Why rape victim’s are not ready to file a report in the police for the crime happened against them?

· The very first thing is victim’s family support. The victim’s family do not encourage them to file a report to the police because of their prestige in the society. They feel that once the society came to know that their daughter or wife or sister is a rape victim the society won’t respect the family. This is the main reason.

· People will always blame women. They generally hold the women responsible for the act though she may be innocent. They don’t criticize men. They will advice women what to do and what not to do. But whatever men do they say he is right. And in India they people will say “HE IS A MEN SO HE WILL DO WHATEVER HE WANT he may be wrong but they will say HE IS A MEN”. There is no right and rong for men “WHATEVER MEN DID IS RIGHT”. This things made women to feel like they are the wrong doer. So they are scared of society to tell them that she is a rape victim.

· When she was raped by some powerful person in the society she can’t able to file a report against them. Whether that powerful person threats the victim not to tell anyone if she tell this he will kill her entire family like this he can threat or in some cases they will kill that girl.

These are all some of the main reasons why rape victims are not ready to file a report.

Domestic violence is universal. It is not confined to age, race, class, culture or country. Every nation experience domestic violence according to their belief systems, traditional styles, customs. Domestic violence a tyranny of private life. It involves abuse of power. Domestic violence occurs when a family member, partner, or any other person in a family attempts to physical or psychological domination or any other harm against women. Domestic violence is, forced confinement of a wife within the four walls of the house, when mobility of women is restricted etc. Dowry death is consider to be the extreme domestic violence. The National Crime Record Bureau reported that 20 dowry death cases are reported every day. Domestic violence is a complex problem. It not only affects the family it affects the entire country. Women who are in rural areas experience lot of domestic violence when compared to women who are residing in urban areas.

In a community based study involving 450 women in Gujarat in the year 2016. In that study it came to know that 42% of women experienced physical beatings and sexual abuse, and 23% of women abusive language, belittlement and threats. Interesting note is that 56% of women belief that wife beating is justified. This study shows that hoe women are treated in their house.

Marriage is consider as the sacramental institution. It still exists in the society. However, over a period of time, dowry emerged as a social evil in the society. Which leads to increasing number of deaths of innocent brides. Dowry “an amount of property or money brought by a bride to her husband on their marriage”. Initially this system was optional . If the parents are rich then they can give all the things to their daughter just because she should not face any difficulties in their husbands house. Later on this system became compulsory. When the parents are poor they can’t afford all the necessity of the girls. The grooms family started to demand for things, money and etc. As a result of this poor girls are not getting married and this leads to the situation where women are considered as burden of the society. This System was practiced in South Asia like India, Pakistan, Bangladesh etc. As a result of this many innocent girls sucided and many of them just killed for this reason.

As compared to past now the dowry death rate was reduced a lot. But it is not completely eradicated from the society.

Acid attack are increasing phenomenon in India. THE effects of an acid attack are very serious. After the effects of an acid attack though the victim survives are distinct and scar of the victim. The society will started to ignore them. This will affect them both physically and mentally. Today acid attacks are reported in many parts of the world, especially in developing country. Since 19 is 90s, Bangladesh has ben reporting . The intention of the attacker is to humiliate rather than to kill the victim. According to researchers and activists, countries associated with acid attack are

Acid attacks happens highly in South Asian countries. In Devanand v. The state , in this case a man threw acid on his wife because she refuse to cohabit with him. The Wife suffered permanent disfigurement ntand she lost her one eye. In Bangladesh, throwing acid is named as gender crime. Whais the reason for acid attack?

This chart shows the highest acid attack states in India. These are some the useless for which the acid have been thrown. The effects of acid attack are very worse and hard to describe. Victims face lifetime social, psychological, physical, and economic consequences.

Trafficking is a crime of crimes. In this one can dig out the element of abduction, illegal confinements, kidnapping, hurt etc. So multiple abuse and abusres located at different points of time and place together constitute the organised crime of trafficking. India is a source, destination and country foe women and children trafficked foe the purpose of forced labour, commercial, sexual exploitation. Rural forced labour may constitute . Trafficking of young girls who are forced to work as prostitutes is a factor in the rise of AIDS in India. Trafficking does not mean prostitution. The definition of “Trafficking” is set out in 1949 Convention for the suppression on the traffic in persons and of exploitation of the prostitution which refers to all acts involved in the transport, harbouring, or sale of persons within nation or across the international borders through coercion, kidnapping, force, or fraud.

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Crime Prevention and Control in Indian Society. (2022, September 15). Edubirdie. Retrieved October 3, 2023, from
“Crime Prevention and Control in Indian Society.” Edubirdie, 15 Sept. 2022,
Crime Prevention and Control in Indian Society. [online]. Available at: <> [Accessed 3 Oct. 2023].
Crime Prevention and Control in Indian Society [Internet]. Edubirdie. 2022 Sept 15 [cited 2023 Oct 3]. Available from:
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