Essay on Acid Rain: Meaning, Effects and Control
The term “acid rain” was first used by Robert Angus in 1872. “Literally it means the presence of excessive acids in rain waters.” Acid rain is in-fact cocktail of mainly H2SO4 and HNO3, where the ratio of these two may vary depending upon the relative quantities of oxides of sulphur and nitrogen emitted.
H2SO4 is the major contributor (60-70%) to acid precipitation, HNO3 ranks second (30-40%) and HCl third. Acid rain is in fact a natural phenomenon occurring during any thunderstorm accompanied by heavy lightening or by volcanic eruptions.
However, it is the pollution of the air with nitrogen and sulphur containing gases, emitted by the industry, power station, planes and automobiles that produce acid rain which has alarmed many people because of the increasing potential hazard for environmental degradation including soil and water.
Acidification of environment is a man-made phenomenon. There is now no doubt that most acids come from human activities from cars, homes, factories, and power stations etc. there has always been some acid in rain, coming from volcanoes, swamps and plankton in the oceans, but scientists know that it has increased very sharply over the past 200 years.
The acidity is mainly associated with the transport and subsequent deposition of oxides of sulphur, nitrogen and their oxidative are produced by combustion of fossil fuels, smelters, power plants, automobile exhausts and domestic fires etc.
The accumulation of these oxides was first reported to be responsible for increasing an acidity in Swedish lakes and Rivers. The acid rain problem has drastically increased due to industrialization. Burning of fossil fuels for power generations contributes to 60-70% of total SO2 emitted globally. Emission of NOx from anthrogenic sources ranges between 20- 90 million tonnes annually over the globe.
The super stack and the mammoth smelters at Sudbury (Ontario) release about 2500 tonnes of SO2 into the air daily. It is the largest stack in the world and serves as a symbol of acid rain problems in North America. Incredibly, this one stack gives of 1% of the total SO2 released worldwide.
Many super stacks constructed recently facilitate long transport of gases and particulate, thus contributing to the wide-spread acid deposition problem facing the United States and Canada today. Highly industrialized areas of the UK, Central Europe, Finland, Norway, Austria, and Switzerland were the net importers of sulphur compounds which contribute much for increasing acidity.
Acid rain can also be termed acid precipitation which is described as rainfall whose level of pH is lower than 5.6 making it acidic. This form of rainfall results from the combination of Sulphite and Nitrogen oxides with the atmosphere resulting in the formation of Nitric and Sulphuric acids. (Weathers, K. C. and G. E. Likens p 10). The increasing level of pollution through acid rain all over the globe is a major concern that requires a quick and sustainable...
During normal rain pollutants are cleane . If rain fall continues rainwater clean the air from pollutants. Sulphat , ammonium and nitrate can be reduced by normal rain up to 30 to 73%. While the gases i.e. sulphur dioxide, Ammonia, Chlorine and NO2 can be decreased by 24 to 63%. The amount of NO2 in 72% areas of Lahore city is higher than standard values set by Pakistan and US EPA. These results are the indication of bad air quality...
Rain is a critical component in the process of the hydrological cycle. The water cycle is beneficial to all organism living on this planet. It brings purification and distribution of fresh water that can be used by all living organism. Apart from providing fresh water, it also played a pivotal role in regulating the earth temperature. Regulation of the temperature occurs when water in the sea, lake or any other water body evaporates bringing a cooling effect to our environment....
Introduction Acid rain refers to rain containing strong inorganic acids in solution. The acids include sulfuric acid, ammonium and nitric acid. The acids originate from acid forming substances emitted into the atmosphere from combustion of hydrocarbon fuels and farming activities (Driscoll et al. 2005, p. 27). These chemicals interact with ozone and atmospheric moisture to form the acids which are incorporated into rain droplets and transferred to the earth’s surface. This report explains the processes leading to acidic atmospheric deposition....
Authors Lauraine Chestnut and David Mills documented the benefits and cost assessment of the US acid rain reduction platform. Special attention was given to the parameters specified under the US Acid Rain Program, specifically Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. To accomplish that goal, the proponents of the study compared estimates made in 1990 to estimates made a decade after. Furthermore, the need to measure the benefits of the program in the context of human health was...
Introduction Pollution entails the introduction of substances into the environment in quantities that can change environmental conditions and in turn, harm organisms. Acid rain and ozone pollution are a form of pollution, which entails the release of gaseous and dust particles in quantities that destroy the integrity of the atmosphere and affect organisms in their respective habitats and ecosystems. Essentially, the atmosphere is an integral natural resource of the earth because it contains and maintains gases in appropriate proportions, which...
Acid rain is defined as precipitation in any form that has acidic properties, such as nitric and sulfuric acid which is formed in the atmosphere and falls to the ground. The pH scale is used the measure acidity and alkalinity in solutions. The lower the substance’s pH value is (less than 7), the more acidic the substance is. If the substance has a higher pH value (greater than 7) then the more alkaline it is. Normal rain has a pH...
Acid rain is the environmental issue that can occurs negative impact towards human, animals, surrounding or even non-living things like property. The clean rain has a pH value between 5.0 and 5.5. Nevertheless, the pH of rain can become more acidic up to 4.0 if the rain combines with sulfur dioxides or nitrogen dioxides which those are from the industrial area. Some parties in industry are not taking serious on how they manage their company, thus the air and water...
Acid rain, or acid deposition is rain water with elevated levels of hydrogen (H+) ions. Acid rain refers to the ways in which acid moves from the atmosphere to the earth’s surface. It is transboundary and involves the falling of sulfuric or nitric acid. There are two different forms of acid deposition, one of them is wet deposition: acid rain, snow, and fog and dry deposition, which falls as separate acidic particles or gases. Acid rain occurs as a result...
01 / 09
Fair Use Policy
EduBirdie considers academic integrity to be the essential part of the learning process and does not support any violation of the academic standards. Should you have any questions regarding our Fair Use Policy or become aware of any violations, please do not hesitate to contact us via email@example.com.
We are here 24/7 to write your paper in as fast as 3 hours.