Charles Lapworth quoted: “All that comes above the surface lies within the province of geography; all that comes below that surface lies inside the realm of geology”.
Geology is the study of the Earth, its components, the composition of those materials, and the influence of natural forces on those materials. A basic understanding of geology is so necessary that it is required in civil engineering programs at the university level. One of the most important subjects for civil engineers to study is geology.
What does geology have to do with civil engineers? It's crucial to civil engineering because much of the work they do includes the Earth and its characteristics. The majority of civil engineering projects include filling the Earth by constructing structures on top of it.
From the standpoint of base stability and building material availability, site selection is critical. Site surveying is one of the most critical tasks a civil engineer must complete. Civil engineers use surveying to assess the relative locations of points on, above, and below the Earth's surface. Civil engineers, for example, must use both direct and indirect methods to calculate distance, elevation, and orientation to decide how to blueprint points translate to the real world. The geological conditions under which a project will be built may have a significant impact on its viability, planning, and design, construction and costing, as well as safety. Construction and hazard analysis both need a comprehensive and reliable geology information inventory.
The geology of the area in question is needed for the construction of large civil engineering projects. When planning a major construction project, it's necessary to consider the local geology of the region. As a result, the engineer must have a sufficient understanding of geology to know how and when to assess their reliability, as well as an understanding of how the mentioned conditions can affect the project. Geology is the scientific study of the structure and properties of building materials, as well as their incidence. Civil engineers must have a thorough understanding of rock properties to consider various rocks for various purposes, such as base rock, road metal, concrete aggregate, building stones, and roofing material for decorative purposes. A civil engineer might consider a site identified in a geological report as being underlain by clastic sedimentary rocks to be entirely made up of sandstones.
Engineering geology aids in the design of stable and cost-effective building projects. Before starting a project, conduct a detailed geological survey of the area. This will lower the project's overall cost. The geology of the region where dams, bridges, and other structures are built is usually directly related to fundamental problems. Because of geology expertise, the construction of dams, tunnels, reservoirs, and other civil engineering projects is more robust, reliable, and cost-effective when safety precautions are taken and materials are used.
Groundwater expertise is needed for a variety of purposes, including excavation, water supply, irrigation, and many others. Hydrological maps show the distribution of surface water channels, as well as the depth of groundwater. Civil engineering programs benefit from geological maps. It gives details on the structural deposition of different rock types in the proposed field. Geology aids in the identification of earthquake-prone areas. If any geological features such as faults or folds are discovered, they must be handled appropriately to improve the structure's stability. Geology aids in the identification of areas prone to collapse due to geological hazards such as earthquakes, landslides, and weathering impacts, among other things. Engineering geology is the application of geology to engineering studies to ensure that geological factors affecting the site, design, development, service, and maintenance of engineering works are recognized and taken into consideration.
A thorough understanding of geology improves a civil engineering project's strength, stability, and long-term viability. Civil engineers depend on geology for everything from civil engineering consultancy to the design of a massive public structure. Engineers must consider the land on which a civil engineering project is built for it to be successful. There are reasons why geology is included in the civil engineering curriculum. It exemplifies how important geology is in civil engineering.