The Patriot Act was passed in 2001 to improve the abilities of the U.S. law enforcement to detect and deter terrorism. The act’s official title was Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism, or USA-PATRIOT. The Patriot Act was modified in 2015 to help ensure the Constitutional rights of ordinary Americans some distributions of the law remain controversial. President George W. Bush signed on October 26, 2001, into law by, just weeks after September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks against the United States. The Patriot Act is a 300-page document passed by the U.S. Congress with bipartisan support. Congress had mainly focused on legislation to prevent international terrorism Prior to the 9/11 attacks. After the April 1995 Oklahoma City bombing which American citizens blew up a federal building, domestic terrorism gained more attention. According to the Department of Justice Details of the Patriot Act simply expanded. The application of tools already being used against drug dealers and organized crime. The act aimed to improve homeland security by the following:
- allowing law enforcement to use surveillance and wiretapping to investigate terror-related crimes
- allowing federal agents to request court permission to use roving wiretaps to track a specific terrorist suspect
- allowing delayed notification search warrants to prevent a terrorist from learning they are a suspect
- allowing federal agents to seek federal court permission to obtain bank records and business records to aid in national security terror investigations and prevent money laundering for terrorism financing
- improving information and intelligence sharing between government agencies providing tougher penalties for convicted terrorists and those who harbor them
- allowing search warrants to be obtained in any district where terror-related activity occurs, no matter where the warrant is executed
- ending the statute of limitations for certain terror-related crimes
- making it harder for aliens involved in terrorist activities to enter the United States
- providing aid to terrorism victims and public safety officers involved in investigating or preventing terrorism or responding to terrorist attack
Many of the Patriot Act’s requirements were to expire in 2005. The renewal of the act was devotedly argued in the U.S. House of Representatives and the Senate. President Bush signed the USA Patriot and Terrorism Reauthorization Act on March 9, 2006. Despite the continued civil liberties and privacy concerns. The Patriot Act may or may not have prevented terrorism. FBI agents can’t point to any major terrorism cases they’ve cracked to the key snooping powers in the Patriot Act. In 2012 a report from the conservative Heritage Foundation states 50 terrorist attacks have been hindered since 9/11. With 47 being the direct result of the work of law enforcement and intelligence agencies. They claim the Patriot Act is essential to helping law enforcement identify leads and prevent attacks.
When it comes to hate, hate itself isn’t a crime however, hate is a special kind of crime. If it was a crime most of us would be in jail a few times a year. When someone creates a crime based on hate, it has broader social ramifications. When someone commits a crime and does it because of their hatred of that person because of their race, religion, or a number of other social attributed. The governments in the US, UK, Canada, and Australia usually punish the perpetrator more harshly. A hate crime is known as a bias-motivated crime or bias crime, which is a prejudice-motivated crime which occurs when a perpetrator targets a victim because of their membership or perceived membership in a certain social group or race. Here are a few Examples of such groups which can include, and are almost exclusively limited to: sex, ethnicity, disability, language, nationality, physical appearance, religion, gender identity or sexual orientation. Non-criminal actions that are motivated by these reasons are often called bias incidents generally refers to criminal acts which are seen to have been motivated by bias against one or more of the social groups listed above, or by bias against their derivatives. Incidents may involve physical assault, damage to property, bulling, harassment, verbal abuses or insult, mate crime or offensive griffins or letters hate mail. A hate crime law is intended to deter bias-motivated violence. Hate crime laws are distinct from laws against hate speech: hate crime laws enhance the penalties associated with conduct which is already criminal under other laws, while hate speech laws criminalize a category of speech. Hate speech laws exist in many countries. In the United States, hate crime laws have been upheld by both the Supreme Court. And lower courts, especially in the case of fighting words. And other violent speech. Some people are in conflict with the First Amendment right to freedom of speech but hate crimes are only regulated through threats of injury or death. Here are two different Hate crimes: A Pennsylvania Man was charged with Federal Hate Crimes for Tree of Life Synagogue Shooting. His name is Robert Bowers he was charged he was charged with 44 federal counts, including obstruction of free exercise of religious beliefs resulting in death for an attack that occurred on the Sabbath at the Tree of Life Synagogue in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in October 2018. January 29, 2019, the federal grand jury sat in on the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania Bowers was charged with additional federal hate crimes and firearms offenses for his conduct during the shootings. His indictment, to shootings occurred on October 27, 2018. Bowers had entered the Tree of Life Synagogue with multiple firearms and stated his desire was to kill Jews. He killed eleven worshippers, and injured two other members of the congregations and five law enforcement officers. He is faced with a maximum possible penalty of life without parole. The additional charges can also result in a sentence to death. If the Attorney General determines the circumstances of these offenses justify seeking the death penalty. The Department of Justice must file a notice with the court at a reasonable time before the trial begins.
“A Charlottesville Rally Participant Pleads Guilty to 29 Federal Hate Crimes for Car Attack. James Alex Fields, Jr., who participated in a white nationalist rally held in Charlottesville, Virginia, had pled guilty to hate crimes charges that resulted in the death of a victim, caused bodily injury, and involved an attempt to kill other people after he drove into a group of counter-protestors. Fields had signed facts that he attended the “Unite the Right” rally in Charlottesville, Virginia, where multiple groups and individuals chanted and expressed white supremacist and anti-Semitic views. Law enforcement had told rally participants to leave. He had admitted to driving into downtown Charlottesville where a racially and ethnically diverse crowd had gathered. Fields proceeded to drive into a crowd of counter-protestors because of their actual and perceived race, color, national origin, and religion. He also admitted that prior to the rally he used social media to express and promote white supremacist views; the social and racial policies of Nazi-era Germany; and violence against groups that he perceived to be non-white.”
No two cases are alike, but investigators share five characteristics needed to function. First is an analytical mind set to consider multiple theories of how a crime occurred, followed by strong communication skills to deal with suspects and witnesses. These qualities are no good without a strong sense of integrity particularly if alternative theories lead cases in a different direction. Alfred Binet stated intelligence is the ability for judgement. Intelligence is defined as one’s capacity to deal effectively with situations. Intelligence is also the ability to adapt to one’s surroundings. The Association of Law Enforcement Intelligence Units is an organization whose mission is to provided leadership and promoting professionalism in the criminal intelligence community in order to protect public safety and constitutional rights. Intelligence information helps the police to solve cases and make arrests that can lead to successful prosecution in court. Sources for intelligence gathering in law enforcement are many. Telephone wire taps and electronic surveillance make for great stories, but in reality, they are few and far between. Interrogation of suspects is one of the most important functions of criminal investigation. Of increasing assistance in criminal investigation is the crime laboratory, equipped to deal with a wide range of physical evidence by means of chemical and other analysis. Interrogation of suspects is one of the most important functions of Interrogation of suspects is one of the most important functions of criminal investigation. There are four main types of investigation performed by digital forensics specialists. The first three are broadly similar in the activities the involve. But differ in the legal terms, restrictions and guidelines imposed as well as the type of digital evidence and form of report. Intelligence information is here to helps police solve cases and make arrests that can lead to successful prosecution in court. Criminal investigation is an applied science that involves the use of facts that are then used to inform criminal trials. A complete criminal investigation can include searching, interviews, interrogations, evidence collection and preservation and various methods of investigation. Criminal Intelligence is information compiled, analyzed, and/or disseminated in an effort to anticipate, prevent, or monitor criminal activity.
The U.S. Army Military Police define criminal intelligence in additional detail; criminal intelligence is info gathered or collated, analyzed, recorded/reported and disseminated by enforcement agencies regarding varieties of crime, known criminals and far-famed or suspected criminal teams. It is notably helpful once handling gangland. Criminal intelligence is developed by using surveillance, informants, interrogation, and research, or may be just picked up on the street by individual police officers. Some larger enforcement agencies have a department, division or section specifically designed to gather disparate pieces of information and develop criminal intelligence. One of the foremost effective ways in which of applying criminal intelligence is 1st to record it, which may be deep-mined sought for specific info. The Intelligence Unit is an elite unit of the Chicago Police Department that investigates and combats the city’s major offenses, including organized crime, drug trafficking, and high-profile murders.
The new world of data society with international networks and Net can inevitably generate a large kind of social, political, and ethical problems. Many issues associated with human relationships and also the communities become apparent, when most human activities are carried on in cyberspace. The study focuses on the moral problems in info technology. Based on the living literature many moral problems like plagiarism, hacking, viruses, data access rights, piracy, ergonomic and health issues amongst others are identified ethical issues related to IT. These issues are being solved partially by using technological approaches such as encryption technique, SSL, digital IDs and computer firewalls. With these protection technologies and legal laws are also needed in cyberspace to address hundreds of countries. Guidelines and methods area unit enforced so international info may be exploited in an exceedingly new socially and ethically sensitive approach for our future profit and applications. Those who study criminal justice nowadays area unit at the forefront of life-saving technology. Here’s a glance at a number of the exciting technologies that area unit enjoying a crucial role within the criminal justice field nowadays.
Technological innovations the growth of terrorism by nonstarter actors, and new legal and ethical approaches are changing the nature of modern warfare. With New technology can offer police with many useful methods for combating criminal activity, with these tools as GPS and advanced communications systems. Technology such as body armor and less-lethal projectiles also improve the safety of both police and the public. Several technological innovations and political developments are changing the nature of warfare today in ways that show complex challenges to the traditional standards that we use. With cutting-edge technology such as drones, cyber weapons, autonomous weapons cab help reduce collateral damage. Other technology can provide early warning of conflict and promote more effective peacekeeping. New technologies also have been developed that can provide early warning of civil conflict and promote more effective peacekeeping operations. On the political side, the growth of terrorism by nonstarter actors, the spread of weapons of mass destruction, and changing doctrines in the United Nations about the responsibility to protect civilians pose new questions about the appropriate legal rules and ethical norms governing decisions to use military force. Professional military lawyers play a growing important role in reviewing targeting policies and rules of engagement, at least in the United States, to ensure that military plans and operations are compliant with the laws of armed conflict. We commonly judge and sometimes punish individuals in the domain of love for infidelity, deceit, and crimes of passion; and we commonly judge and sometimes punish individuals. In the domain of combat for acts of aggression rape and pillage in war, and crimes against humanity. The intense pressure of competition, in both affairs of the heart and the crucible of war, can help explain why unfair, even inhumane, behavior is common, but it does not excuse it. New technologies–including the use of drones, precision-guided weapons, cyber weapons, and autonomous robots–have led both to optimism about the possibility of reducing collateral damage in war and to concerns about whether some states find it too easy to use force today. War crimes tribunals have grown in use, but raise new questions about whether they encourage ruthless leaders to fight to the finish rather than accept resignation and exile.
New knowledge about post conflict medical system failures raises questions about both the best practices to end wars and sustain peace accords and about whether political leaders systematically underestimate the costs of going to war before they make decisions about military interventions. As technology is used to commit more sophisticated crimes, law enforcement officers and those in the legal system are increasingly using tech tools to combat crime. To keep the public safe and protect human life, it’s important that the criminal justice industry use cutting-edge software, tracking systems, and more.