Throughout the world, people have developed thousands of languages. Each language has its own diversity. In terms of dialect development in a language, there are two main reasons: “geographical variations” and “social variations”.
According to Syal and Jindal, living in a different geographical area may occur diversity in dialect. “It is a universal characteristic of human language that speakers of the ‘same’ language who live in different parts of a continuous territory do not speak in the same way” (Amina, n.d). For example, in Vietnam, there are many different words to call “mother” such as “bầm”, “má”, “bu”,etc. Besides, migration also causes to influence dialect development at a geographical level because “the movement of people also means the movement of languages from their original geographic locations to new locations and to new language ecologies”. (Mplewis, 2015)
Moreover, according to website Britannica, the dialect is not only a feature of the original homeland of a particular group of migrants but also a balance between people from more than one homeland. https://www.britannica.com/topic/dialect/Unifying-influences-on-dialects For this reason, the length of time a particular group of people settles on a particular location is a determining factor in dialect diversity. As an example of John, “In Standard German, “Tomorrow I am going to the movies” is Morgen gehe ich ins Kino.” (2015). It can translated word by word in English “tomorrow go I in the movies.” However, John also stated that inner-city immigrants’ children whose parents are Arabic- or Turkish-speaking will speak a weird kind of German Morgen ich geh Kino “tomorrow I go movies” —almost as if they were English-speakers. They ignored the Standard German rule that forces them to say “tomorrow go I” instead of “tomorrow I go” and “in the movies” instead of just saying “movies” (John, 2015).
Another reason is “social variations” which is related to both social classes and educational levels. More-highly educated speakers using more features in the standard language often belong to a higher social class, whereas the original dialect of the region is preserved better in the speech of the lower and less-educated classes.(David & Pavle, 2014). https://www.britannica.com/topic/dialect Therefore, “many local accents are now associated with working-class speakers, while middle and upper-class speakers tend to use a more standardized English” (Natalie, 2018)