Artificial Intelligence in Robotic Surgery

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Robotic surgery is used now a days by hospitals to do surgeries more precisely, flexibly and with more control than the surgeries which are done by human hand. The robots used for this purpose are manually controlled and coordinated by surgeons. Artificial intelligence is a computer system which is able to perform tasks which requires human intelligence, like visual recognition, decision making, recognition of sounds and more over the things which humans do. So, this research report mainly focuses on how artificial intelligence can be used in robotic surgery and how they are going to help the society, what are their limitations, and how it is going to affect the people who are related to this sector. Recently, society is surprisingly positive towards robotic surgery. People have changed their mind of view in the past few years dramatically towards allowing artificial intelligence algorithms and robots to operate on themselves or on their beloved ones. Present generation tend to trust technology so far beyond expectation.

Literature Review

The most common robotic surgery which is used now a day is the Da Vinci surgical system from Intuitive Surgical which was accepted by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) in 2000, which perform the exact motions of a surgeon. It is a system where the decision-making stays with the surgeon. A human surgeon is manually controlling the motions through a master manipulator and everything is prosecuted at a smaller scale inside the patient, where there is minimal invasive. An enthusiastic one is image-guided surgery. In that, mostly in orthopedics or in neurosurgery, the robot is able to perform event in a finest motion based on a pre-operative plan advised by the surgeon. In the coming era, there is a high chance of artificial intelligence in all sectors and especially in robotic surgery. With the arrival of artificial intelligence, we are able to do surgeries more accurately and with less mistakes than manual surgeries which seen more now a days. It is faster than normal surgery and less blood flow is visible. But the surgical robots which is used today are operated by surgeons. The robot doesn’t control the scalpel the surgeon does as mentioned above.

Although, there are many types of artificial intelligence learning which is changing medicine, silently but immensely, in ways that will affect surgeons and maybe other care takers throughout the coming years. Machine learning mainly uses algorithms that have the efficiency to learn and respond to data, also can improve their performance according to the feedback given by them. Deep learning builds algorithms which can handle an excessive degree of complexity by mimicking the neural networks found in the human brain. These artificial neural networks indicate how each node of the network have the ability to handle one small part of a complex task. This fastens the ability of algorithms to handle an increased amount of complex data.

There are many benefits when artificial intelligence is used in robotic surgery like minimal invasive, in which the incision made will be so precise and much smaller than the one which is made by human surgeons. The probability of unintended ruptures which leads to hemorrhage and septicity are significantly lowered. So, when small incisions are made the recovery time will be less and they heal faster than the traditional one. In this situation patients can continue their normal life within a short time period, and the ones who does work can continue their work. Less bleeding will be observed as it is also a result of small incision, it’s not an end there are many like less pain is felt during the surgery and following the surgery. The use of painkillers during the time of recovery can be minimized, which lowers the risk of addiction.

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In the case of low blood loss, we can avoid the need of blood transfusion. In ordinary surgery blood loss will be much higher, which causes complications during surgery. There are risks of infection, when surgical procedure is done, which can cause the delaying of recovery. There is also higher chance of infection in some specific part of the body particularly when large incisions are made, so in robotic surgery less invasive, the risk of developing infection is very low. With the help of robotics, we are able to go beyond the physical human capabilities. There is no hand shaking or trembling, no restriction in terms of fatigue, the surgeons don’t have to do surgeries for ten hours all can be done by robots with the help of artificial intelligence. So, there are various aspects that heighten the robotic surgery.

The most impressive example for artificial intelligence in past two to three years was the retinal vessel surgery for human eye, removing the membrane, re-joining arteries, or just putting needles and giving some local medication in case of vein occlusion, only one out of hundred surgeons has enough elegant fine motion control to do that.

Limitations

At the same time there are limitations which slow down the progress of arrival of artificial intelligence in robotic surgery. Artificial intelligence has the ability to make its own decision, sometimes there are cases where ethical issues may interfere with decision making, that time the decision made will not be ideal, in this situation emotion plays a major role, which is absent in artificial intelligence. In coming decades there is a possibility that the care providers will be replaced by robots, which results in the domination of machines over man ending up in utter turmoil. Workers are forced to modify their skills to thrive in their occupation for the future. Demands which are related to social and emotional skills like communication and empathy can grow almost quickly as demand for many advanced technological skills. Automation can also stimulate the growth for higher cognitive skills, specifically critical thinking, creativity, and complex information processing. Necessity for physical and manual techniques will decline, but these will stand as the single largest category of workforce skills in 2030 in many countries. The pace of skill shifts has been accelerating, and it may lead to excess demand for some skills and excess supply for others. As said in the upcoming days robots will overrule in very sectors and the byproduct is unemployment which leads to poverty of the families who are depended on them. Talking about all these they also can revolt against us; artificial intelligence has the ability to improve their way of behavior and thinking ability. Autonomous weapons are artificial intelligence systems which are assigned to kill. If these technologies are in the hands of the wrong person, there is high chance of misusage of this automation. As a result, these ideas should be handled so diligently.

Conclusion

Conventionally, we believe the surgeon to make decisions, and if they ever make any wrong decision, we have certain mechanisms that we can do at a public level to make sure that we as a society accept or deny that they made the right decision. And if they are blamedable, then they get punished, or we cancel their license. In spite of, when a machine takes a decision which is unacceptable, then who are we going to blame? If an algorithm says it is statistically good decision to separate a limb, and then it turns out it was wrong, and making someone an amputee for the rest of their life, and which was a programming error that someone made years before in manufacturing, so who is to be blamed here? A human surgeon can make mistakes, that’s why we are having statements and responsibility in which you have to give your consent to everything. But for people normally have more expectation on technology and on robotics to be perfect. And even if you have given the information that statistically a robot is better than 99.5% of all human surgeons, if it fails to do things correctly, then society will still blame the robot manufacturer, even though statistically it was a stronger decision to use the technology. This is a big issue in which there is no particular answer for it. The public itself is not ready for it.

References

  1. https://ai-med.io/artificial-intelligence-robotic-surgery/
  2. https://futureoflife.org/ai/benefits-risks-of-artificial-intelligence/
  3. https://www.uchealth.com/services/robotic-surgery/patient-information/benefits/
  4. https://www.online-sciences.com/robotics/robotic-surgery-cons-pros-uses-and-how-does-robotic-surgery-work/
  5. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Da_Vinci_Surgical_System
  6. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artificial_intelligence
  7. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robot-assisted_surgery
  8. https://www.researchgate.net/post/What_are_the_advantages_and_disadvantages_of_artificial_intelligence
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Artificial Intelligence in Robotic Surgery. (2023, March 01). Edubirdie. Retrieved May 21, 2024, from https://edubirdie.com/examples/artificial-intelligence-in-robotic-surgery/
“Artificial Intelligence in Robotic Surgery.” Edubirdie, 01 Mar. 2023, edubirdie.com/examples/artificial-intelligence-in-robotic-surgery/
Artificial Intelligence in Robotic Surgery. [online]. Available at: <https://edubirdie.com/examples/artificial-intelligence-in-robotic-surgery/> [Accessed 21 May 2024].
Artificial Intelligence in Robotic Surgery [Internet]. Edubirdie. 2023 Mar 01 [cited 2024 May 21]. Available from: https://edubirdie.com/examples/artificial-intelligence-in-robotic-surgery/
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