Although the invention of tools, the control of fire, and the discovery of uses of language and art by Paleolithic people were remarkable achievements, it was the Neolithic people’s use of systematic agriculture and settled life that was one of the most important events in the world history.
Paleolithic is the first period of prehistory. It began with human beings appearing about 300,000years ago in Africa. During this time, humans lived in tribes, and dwell in natural caves. They were typically nomads that’s, they moved from place to place in search of food. They developed a language that served as a means of communication and made it easier for people to work together and pass on knowledge. Ancient humans in the Paleolithic age were purely hunters. During the Paleolithic era, people held rituals to worship nature to ask for food abundance. During this time was when the fire was discovered. Fire provided them with warmth and light.
It also scared wild animals and it was also used for cooking. Art in the Paleolithic era began around 35,000yrs ago. The first cave paintings was made on the walls. They painted using their fingers or paint brushes. Their tools were key to survival. To make these tools, they shaped stone using another stone. As they were progressing, they started using materials like woods and bones to make weapons. They developed gradually through the practice of agriculture and the domestication of animals. This marked the end of the Paleolithic era.
The Neolithic era, also known as the new era began in 8000BC-4000BCE. The neolithic era began when homo sapiens moved from Africa to settle in Australia, Japan, Eastern Siberia, the Pacific margins, India, and America due to climatic conditions. The neolithic revolution is the first agricultural revolution thus, the evolvement from hunter-gatherers to agriculture and settlement. The neolithic revolution began when early humans settled into sedentary communities. They were basically into farming and domestication of farm animals. They mostly cultivated food crops such as wheat and barley.
Due to agriculture and the domestication of animals, the Neolithic era changed the life patterns of early humans to settle into sedentary communities. This was because they had to settle at one place and cultivate more food crops. During this era, they were solely into farming and domestication. They settled along river banks like the Nile river, Indus river, Yellow rivers, and many other rivers which led to their civilization. The availability of water, made them develop irrigation systems. They drained water from rivers to their farmlands. As a result of this, they improved by developing tools and weapons for farming and hunting. This gradually changed the life patterns of early humans into a civilized community.
The Neolithic revolution brought about a population explosion. Through agriculture, their population size increased rapidly and people began to settle down into sedentary communities. Their settlements later tend to form villages. Villages evolved into cities, cities later developed gradually into empires. Their increase in population generated an idea to create social classes in ancient societies.
These social classes were the upper class, middle class, and lastly, lower class. The upper class was made up of rulers, priests, government officials, and warriors. The middle-class people were mostly farmers, artisans and craft people. The lower class were the slaves. They all performed different roles in ancient society. Through the formation of social classes, came out a system of writing.
Lastly, the Neolithic revolution brought about specialized labor, pottery, metallurgy, textile production and many others. Agriculture caused a great impact in the Neolithic revolution. Due to agriculture, there was a shift in labor during that time. Unlike the Paleolithic era where ancient humans were more into farming and hunting.
Ancient humans engaged themselves in different jobs such as basketry, pottery, textile production and many others. All these jobs helped in facilitating agricultural production in the Neolithic era. Women on the other hand, helped in catering to their children and also supporting the men on the farmlands. They usually harvested cultivated crops on the farmlands together with their children.
In conclusion, agriculture, domestication of animal population explosion, the emergence of villages and towns, and specialization of labor contributed massively to the introduction of civilization.