In most developing countries there are two types of industries that issue, direct and manufacture poultry genotypes: one using high performance laying or broiler genotypes; and the other using lower performance indigenous breeds, having lower performance chicks with higher cost makes it unprofitable to commercial broilers under harsh conditions. The performance of the idigenous genotypes improves under constricted feeding conditions, however, not to the extent that it is economically viable. Today there is a lot of concern about what comes out of a chicken in the nutrient output. Worldwide, most of animal production, including poultry, are affected by regulations, policy, and public perceptions (Williams, 2013). With applying poultry genetics, nutrition, housing, and management, poultry health and disease can be less predictable. Consumers perceptions of the risk related to food consumption differ among countries, as does the availability of information.
Since the introduction of modern poultry breeding in the 19th century, a lot of new breeds have come up. Another major factor in support to production systems is the globalization of the market for livestock genetics. Improved access to the growth of the world trade for patent poultry genetics enable livestock companies to sell their product worldwide (Hoffman, 2005). The increase in the access makes for more opportunity to produce potential market products for genetics and creating new breeds of poultry.
Economic effects of patent poultry genetics have been a widely discussed topic since the 19th century when modern poultry breeding got introduced. The demand for animal protein will increase in the next two decades in places with rapid economic growth, urbanization, and household incomes that are higher (Williams, 2013). It is said that water is the most important nutrient in poultry nutrition but the quality of water is taken for granted and that means that with poor water quality, you will get poor productivity and also very large economic plumits.
There are many socio-economic aspects as well, including, but not limited to competition with use as food for humans such as poultry products, poor pricing relative to other crops like beef or pork, the cost per unit of energy or limiting amino acids relative to tradition and rewriting the genetic code for patent poultry, and cost of processing. With applying poultry genetic knowledge in commercial breeding programmes, poultry health and disease can be least predictable (Williams, 2013). A big portion of poultry welfare is affected by genetics. Most segments of animal production including poultry are affected by policy and public perception.
There are a few patents in poultry breeding that cover identification methods for single genes, it is not feasible to patent existing breeds or lines of poultry (Hoffman, 2005). When feeding conditions are confined, the performance of idigenous genotypes improve. Over the last 20 years, it has been said that there are concerns about a loss in genetic variability in commercial poultry strains following dramatic global reductions in the number of commercial poultry breeders and the populations under selection. There is also concern that this could put the industry in jeopardy in the event of a disease outbreak. The patent poultry industry could have a huge economic plummet as disease spreads around to every genetic code and infecting them to the point where it is unfixable. In the past genetic diversity was determined by phenotypes. Now DNA analysis has provided new technology to determine the relationship among breeds and ecotypes (Williams, 2013). Determining the relationship between these breeds and ecotypes can help boost the industry and make a better economic outcome for consumers looking to find patent poultry genetics.
The topic of the public perception of patent poultry genetics and the economic effect will be talked about for many years to come as the industry keeps growing and the demand grows. The economic effects and public perception of patent poultry genetics have been discussed for a long time, ever since modern poultry breeding was introduced. There are many economic aspects that go into patent poultry genetics, such as competition with use as food for humans, poor pricing relative to other crops, the cost of energy, and limiting amino acids relative to tradition. The perception by the public of patent poultry genetics is very bad, in the case of the industry being in jeopardy in the event of disease and the technology used to determine the relationship among breeds and ecotypes (Williams, 2013). Cryo-conservation of isolated embryonic cells, primordial germ cells or blastoderm cells may be an option in the future, but is currently too costly for genetic conservation programmes (Hoffmann, 2008). To conduct analysis for diseases in the poultry industry, a future challenge will be to organize the health infrastructure needed to conduct such analysis. It is said that new virus strains and disease problems will come forth in the future, such as Avian leukosis, Newcastle disease, and highly pathogenic avian influenza.