What were the common religious/spiritual beliefs of the people living in this time period? What role did these beliefs play in the shaping/creating of their society?
The main religion was based around Egyptian Gods and Priests. In these times there were many small communities that had developed their own god/s to worship. One of the biggest spiritual beliefs was that the stones were placed in that particular formation to form a calendar. This calendar was designed to keep track of the time and all of the important astronomical events that were occurring at the time. It is said by historians that this calendar was used most importantly to keep track of the summer and winter solstice. And scale model expert Lloyd Matthews and historian Joan Rankin have spent years trying to discover other possibilities. There conclusion of this extensive research is that not only was Stonehenge made to be a solar calendar, but the entire structure was created to act as a lunar calendar to count every day of the year. Whilst Lloyd Matthews was undertaking his research he discovered three carvings on some of the large stones, after multiple experts worked to figure out what these carving were exactly there were no conclusive answers.
What are the reasons/theories as to why the religious traditions followed in these times have ceased to exist?
It is believed that the Druids religion and traditions were banned in the 1st Century A.D by the Romans who disagreed with their human sacrifices. It is also said that Tiberius the Roman emperor would have been the one to have banned Druidism. There are then two main beliefs as to what made the Druids die out, the first one centring around the idea that after Druidism was banned most of them would have converted to Christianity as it just came into arrival. The other theory says that all of the Druids might have died out due to disease, famine or warfare. History shows that a large massacre may have occurred due to Tiberius the emperor.
How would have the stones been placed in the formation they hold today with the limited resources and tools they would have had in those times?
These stones were believed to have been from places over thirty kilometers away. They were believed to have been brought from Marlborough Downs and Preseli Hills, which are both great distances from where Stonehenge is located. To place the stones into the positions they were in it is assumed that the people would have dug large holes that had sloping sides, they then would have lined the hole with wooden stakes. The stones were then hoisted into position with a machine crafted by them. This machine consisted of an A-frame made of wood and ropes that would have been used to pull up the stones into position.
What kind of stones were used in Stonehenge?
At Stonehenge, there were two different types of stones used to construct the structure. They are large warden stones and bluestones which are the small stones. These warden stones are a type of sandstone block found in places over the United Kingdom. These stones were formed within layers around 50 million years ago. And the bluestones are volcanic and indigenous rocks containing spots or clusters of secondary minerals. The bluestones were placed at Stonehenge during the third phase of construction. This was around the year 2300 BC, it is assumed that there was around 80 of these stones when Stonehenge was first created but now there is only 43 left.
When was Stonehenge created and how long did it take to construct?
In 8500 to 7000 BC construction started on Stonehenge, starting with the early postholes for the large stones. In 3000 BC evidence shows that there was a smaller Stonehenge built first before the one that is here today, this was an Earthwork with ditches and banks. Around 2500 BC the first of the stones were raised and then around 2200 BC the stones were altered leaving the Henge to be completed. In 1901 restoration by the landowner Sir Edmund Antrobus began, this restoration project continued on until 1964 when the last of the stones were consolidated.