Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

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HIV represents human immunodeficiency infection. The infection can prompt AIDS if not treated. Dissimilar to some different infections, the human body can't dispose of HIV totally, even with treatment. So once you get HIV, you have it forever (CDC, 2019).

HIV assaults the body's invulnerable framework, explicitly the CD4 cells (T cells), which help the insusceptible framework ward off contaminations. Untreated, HIV lessens the quantity of CD4 cells (T cells) in the body, making the individual bound to get different diseases or contamination related malignant growths (CDC, 2019). After some time, HIV can pulverize such a large number of these cells that the body can't ward off contaminations and sickness. These shrewd contaminations or malignant growths exploit an extremely powerless insusceptible framework and sign that the individual has AIDS, the last phase of HIV disease (CDC, 2019).

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No powerful fix at present exists, however with appropriate medicinal care, HIV can be controlled. The drug used to treat HIV is called antiretroviral treatment or ART (CDC, 2019). In the event that individuals with HIV accept ART as recommended, their viral burden (measure of HIV in their blood) can get imperceptible. On the off chance that it remains imperceptible, they can live long, sound lives and have viably no danger of transmitting HIV to a HIV-negative accomplice through sex. Prior to the presentation of ART in the mid-1990s, individuals with HIV could advance to AIDS in only a couple of years. Today, somebody determined to have HIV and treated before the ailment is far cutting edge can live about as long as somebody who doesn't have HIV (CDC, 2019).


The HIV pestilence has moved in the course of recent years, from the main announced cases in the mid1980s, to an expected high of 3.7 million new diseases in 1997, to declining new contaminations and AIDS-related mortality all through the 2000s (Unknown, 2013). In 2012, roughly 9.7 million individuals in low-and center salary nations were on antiretroviral drugs (ART). This development of ART inclusion has significantly improved endurance among individuals living with HIV (PLHIV), bringing about an expansion in the quantity of PLHIV to an expected record-breaking high of 35.3 million of every 2012. Increased access to ART has deflected an expected 5.2 million AIDS-related passings in low-and center pay nations from 1995 to 2010, with a 28% decrease in passings from 2006 to 2012. Even as PLHIV live more, the occurrence of new contaminations keeps on declining. An expected 2.3 million new HIV diseases happened in 2012, which is a 34% lessening from 2000 (Unknown, 2013). Overall rate for grown-ups 15 to 49 years old arrived at a pinnacle of 0.11% in 1997 and diminished to 0.05% in 2012. The best decline in HIV frequency is among kids, which has been diminished by 52% in 10 years. Many reasons exist for this abatement in rate, including decreased irresistibleness of PLHIV on ART, extension of projects for counteractive action of mother-to-kid transmission (PMTCT) of HIV, and presentation of damage decrease programs concentrating on more secure sex and effort to high-chance populations.

Since the start of the pestilence, 75 million individuals have been tainted with the HIV infection and around 32 million individuals have kicked the bucket of HIV (WHO, 2018). Universally, 37.9 million [32.7–44.0 million] individuals were living with HIV toward the finish of 2018. An expected 0.8% [0.6-0.9%] of grown-ups matured 15–49 years worldwide are living with HIV, in spite of the fact that the weight of the pestilence keeps on changing extensively among nations and districts (WHO, 2018). The WHO African district stays most seriously influenced, with about 1 in each 25 grown-ups (3.9%) living with HIV and representing more than 66% of the individuals living with HIV around the world (WHO, 2018).

The study of disease transmission of human immunodeficiency infection (HIV) contamination in the United States has changed essentially in the course of recent years (Moore, 2011). HIV/AIDS (HIV/AIDS) is at present a malady of more prominent statistic assorted variety, influencing all ages, genders, and races, and including numerous transmission hazard practices. At any rate 50,000 new HIV diseases will keep on being included every year; in any case, one-fifth of people with new contaminations may not realize they are tainted, and a generous extent of the individuals who realize they are contaminated are not occupied with HIV care (Moore, 2011).

The primary revealed instances of HIV/AIDS in Malaysia were in 1986. Since that time, there are presently more than 100,000 detailed instances of HIV diseases in the nation, and more than 16,000 individuals have kicked the bucket from AIDS as of December 2013 (PTfoundation, 2014).

The pestilence in this nation is focused inside infusing drug clients (IDU), sex laborers (SW), transgender (TG) and men who engage in sexual relations with men (MSM) people group. Toward the finish of 2012, Malaysia was evaluated to 81,900 individuals living with HIV (PLHIV) since the primary case was distinguished 27 years back (PTfoundation, 2014). In 2013 3,393 new HIV contaminations were accounted for, which implies that consistently just about 10 Malaysians become HIV tainted (PTfoundation, 2014).

Most of new HIV diseases are found in youthful grown-ups matured 20 to 29 (31% of cases in 2013) and those matured 30 to 39 (35% of cases in 2013) (PTfoundation, 2014). It is imperative to take note of that around 66% of new HIV contaminations are found in grown-ups matured 20-39, which is worried since this is the age go in which residents are generally gainful. As the scourge advances we likewise note an expanding level of moderately aged individuals living with HIV (PTfoundation, 2014).

In Malaysia, we see a higher pace of HIV transmission through sexual transmission (74% of cases in 2013) as opposed to infusing drug use (22%). The official number of diseases transmitted through hetero intercourse has expanded from 45% of cases in 2012 to 51% of cases in 2013 (PTfoundation, 2014).

The quantity of HIV positive ladies has been expanding too (PTfoundation, 2014). In 2001, the proportion of HIV positive men versus HIV positive ladies was 10:1, yet in 2013 this apportion has significantly changes to 4:1.


Except for forte projects which are dissipated the nation over, HIV+ customers are normally overseen inside the setting of a general restorative program. This has little respect for the necessities that are explicit to this customer populace. It is fundamental that nurses have the right stuff and information to viably think about people who are living with HIV. Nurses must have the option to evaluate all customers for their danger of HIV disease. Numerous patients with HIV are very late to analysis which can have a conceivably negative effect on their reaction to treatment. It is significant that all medical attendants can distinguish the particular hazard factors that put individuals in danger for disease and that they can mediate for the benefit of their customers to guarantee that they get testing. For customers who present with HIV contamination, nurses should have the option to survey for indications of invulnerable trade off, including gauge bloodwork. They additionally should have the option to decide the customer's status, including whether they are on treatment and in the event that they are getting normal essential consideration follow‐up (McCall, 2013).

Finishing a general nursing evaluation of customers who are living with or in danger for HIV disease

Physical evaluation of all body frameworks for indications of:

  • Immune trade off
  • AIDS characterizing ailments
  • Indicator ailments, for example, oral candidiasis, herpes zoster or vaginal candidiasis

    Baseline evaluation including:

  • Utilization of unlawful medications/liquor/tobacco
  • Emotional wellness history
  • Essential consideration development
  • Gauge blood-work including CD4 and CD4 division and viral burden
  • Chance practices, for example, perilous infusing drug use and unprotected sexual movement

    Comprehensive medication history:

  • incorporates a rundown of recommended, over the counter, natural enhancements, and so forth.
  • If taking extra prescriptions, the medical attendant will measure
  • Medicate sensitivities

There are innate employment worries in thinking about wiped out individuals. Other than the difficulties associated with giving care to individuals who are typically not feeling admirably, nurses likewise need to settle with human misery and the passing of patients. The force of the AIDS pandemic makes extra difficulties for wellbeing laborers: aside from the way that they could likewise be tainted, they need to manage an expanding number of individuals who experience the ill effects of a deadly illness for which no fix has been found at this point.

Examination of the information uncovers that HIV/AIDS amplified the remaining burden of nurses for different reasons: an expansion of patients with HIV/AIDS-related diseases; the escalated kind of care that is required by numerous individuals of these (perishing) patients; and an absence of strengthening support (Hall, n.d.). They need to adapt to these difficulties while managing staff deficiencies and deficient hierarchical support in their work environments. The mystery encompassing the sickness appears to decrease their efficiency (all patients must be treated as possibly HIV positive) increments their dread of virus, and stands up to them with different moral issues in regards to themselves furthermore, their accomplices, and PWA and the individuals (accomplices, family members, parental figures) associated with them. Mystery likewise upsets nurses in their endeavors to avert further spreading (Hall, n.d.).

Healthcare laborers including nurses may likewise be tainted with the infection. They may experience uneasiness just as dread that their status will get known at work, which may prompt expanded truancy, stress, and lower execution. From various perspectives the approach of the AIDS plague has strengthened and widened the difficulties looked by nurses as human services suppliers in organized social insurance. Taking care of AIDS patients is physically and genuinely exhausting and impacts on nurse’s outstanding burden also, work related feelings of anxiety. The circumstance is bothered by an absence of hierarchical help, ability deficiencies and the predominance of HIV among nurses. In future this may prompt diminished profitability, expanded whittling down, lower resolve, and more mishaps, which could genuinely compromise the nature of medicinal services (Hall, n.d.).

The 'triple threat' of HIV/AIDS for the wellbeing workforce is a three-pronged risk. To begin with, there is an expanded remaining task at hand and aptitude requests because of AIDS. In certain nations, half 70% of emergency clinic patients are HIV-positive. Second, wellbeing laborers are becoming sick and kicking the bucket in numerous nations. Thinking about the wiped out isn't just requesting however dangerous. Third, wellbeing laborers must adapt to the psychosocial worry of offering palliative consideration to expanding quantities of biting the dust patients alongside thinking about their very own wiped out family and family members (Tawfik & Kinoti , 2006). These elements lead to expanded low spirit, burnout and non-attendance. Moreover, dread, shame and segregation influence inspiration and execution.

During a pandemic, nurses and other medicinal services suppliers face a lopsided danger of presentation to HIV contrasted with the overall public, and may fear contracting HIV or transmitting it to helpless family members (Medscape, 2019). Balancing the requests of work with the need to secure and think about self and family may demonstrate incredibly hard for some nurses. Some may feel the individual chance is too extraordinary and decline to think about contaminated patients. The consequences for the social insurance framework could be significant (Medscape, 2019). Nurses must figure out how to utilize the devices they have, similar to their code of morals during HIV pandemic. They aren't relied upon to set out their lives. Nurses must think about themselves before they can think about others (Medscape, 2019).


Regardless of the geographic heterogeneity of the HIV plague, expanded antiretroviral drugs inclusion will diminish frequency in all areas. Expanded access to antiretroviral drugs joined with explicit aversion intercessions pertinent to nearby populaces and settings may diminish frequency further. The most ideal ways for nurses to guarantee that their dangers are limited and that they will have a sense of security proceeding to play out their occupations during a pandemic are to get instructed about the realities and ramifications of a potential flu pandemic, to get comfortable with their expert code of morals, and to get associated with pre-pandemic arranging endeavors at their human services associations.

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Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). (2022, Jun 16). Edubirdie. Retrieved June 20, 2024, from
“Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).” Edubirdie, 16 Jun. 2022,
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). [online]. Available at: <> [Accessed 20 Jun. 2024].
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) [Internet]. Edubirdie. 2022 Jun 16 [cited 2024 Jun 20]. Available from:

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