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Isaac Newton's Biography And Contributions

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Sir Isaac Newton is one of the most famous scientists in history. He is mainly famous for all his scientific and mathematical discoveries. Some of Sir Isaac Newton’s most important discoveries are: the reflecting telescope, the three laws of motion, and the theory of gravity. Another big accomplishment of Newton’s is his book Philsophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematic (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy) which is most commonly known as Principia. This book is where he explained his three laws of motion.

Major Scientific Contributions:

Sir Isaac Newton made many important contributions to science. Newton discovrd that there is colour in light, that light is made of particles, the theory of gravity, and the three laws of motion. He also invented the reflecting telescope. The three laws of motion are 1) a stationary body will stay stationary unless an external force is applied to it 2) force is equal to mass times acceleration 3) for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Newton used the three laws of motion to discover: how the planets are kept in orbit by the sun’s gravity pulling them towards the sun, how to calculate the mass of planets, how moons can revolve around the earth and Jupiter, how comets revolve in elliptical orbit around the sun and how to calculate the flatting of the earth at the poles and at the bulge at the equator. These are Sir Isaac Newton’s major scientific contributions.

Events that Surrounded his discoveries:

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Sir Isaac Newton invented the reflecting telescope in 1668. At the time he was a professor at Cambridge Collage, so he had to do annual lectures. During one lecture Newton taught optics and he used his telescope to study and prove his theory that there is colour in light. In 1671, he presented his telescope to the royal society. The Royal Society really liked it and wanted him to publish his notes. So, in 1672, Sir Isaac Newton published his notes on optics and colour in light. When Sir Isaac Newton was doing his studies on light and colour he found that light was made of particles. A lot of scientists didn’t agree with him. Robert Hooke did not agree. He said that light was made of waves. So, Sir Isaac Newton and Robert Hooke got into a big debate about it and this went on for many years. In 1679, Isaac Newton had a big nervous breakdown, also in 1679 his mom died. So, he hid from the public to study more about gravity. Newton got the idea of how to find the theory of gravity from Robert Hooke. Isaac Newton got this idea because of a letter Hooke wrote to Newton about a formula that used inverse squares that could possibly explain why the planets are attracted to each other and the shape of their orbit. Robert Hooke couldn’t prove it because he didn’t have the right math skills, but Sir Isaac Newton did. Newton ended up proving it and putting it in his book.

When Sir Isaac Newton put it in his book, he didn’t credit Hooke. So, Robert Hooke said that he plagiarized him. They got their collegue Edmond Halley to look it over. Halley put a lot of money in to Newton’s Book and he was Robert Hooke’s friend so Newton made the decision to credit Hooke to make Edmond Halley happy. Isaac Newton came home from school at Trinity College in 1666 because the school closed. The school closed because the Great Plague was going around. This is when the apple fell from the tree and landed beside him. The apple falling straight down and not at an angle is what caused him to start studying gravity. This is also when he discovered calculus, the laws of planetary motion, the base of his light and colour theory, the three laws of motion and his theory of gravity. After he discovered these things he wrote his book Philsophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematic (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy) or short form Principia his book was published in 1687. In his book he describes bodies in motion using his three laws of motion. He also included in his book how gravity impact planetary motion and how gravity impacts the shape of the earth. These are some of the events that surrounded his discoveries.

Other events in his life:

Sir Isaac Newton was born on January 4, 1643 in Woolsthorpe, Lincolnshire England. Sadly, his father died three months before he was born. He was born premature and wasn’t expected to survive. When he was three years old his mom got re-married to Barnabas Smith and they moved away but left Newton with his grandma. Isaac Newton went to King`s College but was taken out at the age twelve to take care of his mom and her three kids because her second husband died. So, Sir Isaac Newton worked as a farmer to support his family. He wasn’t very good at farming, so he went back to school at King`s college. After he graduated from King’s college his uncle convinced his mom to let him go to Cambridge Trinity College. In 1667 he was elected as a minor fellow at Trinity college and he got a masters of the arts degree. He read Nicholas Mercator’s book on methods of dealing with infantile and wrote an analysis explaining Mercator’s results. He then showed it to his mentor Isaac Barrow but when he showed it to him, he didn’t say that he wrote it. He was impressed by the essay and because of it he made Newton a professor at Cambridge college.

Later in life Sir Isaac Newton fought against King James II trying to make it so there were catholic teachings at Cambridge again. Since he fought against this he was elected to parliament and moved to London. When he was in London, he had another nervous breakdown and when he came out of it, he didn’t want to study what he was studying previously. So, he started studding alchemy, prophecy, and scripture. Isaac Newton was Knighted in 1705 by Queen Anne of England. Sir Isaac Newton died at the age of 84 in his sleep on March 31, 1727. After he died, they tested a part of his hair and it turns out that there was mercury in it. So, he could have died from mercury poisoning.

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