This report investigates the claim “countries that follow quarantine methods are not rigorous enough for malarial prevention. In order to do that, it requires consideration of multiple detailed aspects of the claim.
The first aspect to be considered is the assertion that rigorous enough is a relevant factor in determining how malaria prevention can be accomplished. Although, research articles approve that rigorous enough has certain relevance but, it is not the sole factor which impetus to malaria’s prevention; neither is it most vital factor (Charlotte Hammerton, 2019). There are several factors such as utilise mosquito-net saturated with insecticides, implement mosquito repulsive, and follow your prescription prudently. If those factors are achieved properly, an effective malaria eradication will be fulfilled.
As the claim refers to, ‘Australian quarantine method’, is a second aspect of the claim can be negotiated. This is the declaration that there is an exact impact for the rigorous enough which turns as constraint point concerning malaria resistance and non-malaria resistance. As rigorous enough is not the only factor which determines malaria prevention (Springer, 2018), this is a false assumption synthesises by the claim. Thus, countries that does not associate together with World Health Organisation in confronting the transmission of Malaria will literally be influenced throughout years. Quarantine is an isolation and limitation of undertaking people who were bared to transmittable disease in order to perceive uncertainly that they develop illness. (CDCP, 2017).
The third component of the claim demanding a clarification is the meaning of three words: ‘quarantine methods’, ‘rigorous enough’ and ‘malaria prevention’. Due to the variety of approaches towards malaria, many methods and ways of quarantine as well as malaria varying in the state of devastation, boundaries require to be defined concerning the type methods and malaria to be explored. For research objectives, the type of quarantine method will be from a countries impacted in this area, and the distribution of malaria will be modelled which has recently caused a substantial damage to particular places. As Hispaniola city of Haiti commonly experiences a fatal events, it will be the labelled location (The Carter centre, 2019). Malaria will be investigated as its impacts to Hispaniola city reveals a vast difference, including the waterbodies which were damaged throughout various incidents.
The two main malaria prevention factors that are affected by a quarantine methods (protectively and quarantine), quarantine is more crucial to this specific scenario as it play an essential role in preventing malaria. Consequently, any campaign which is done to appeal the protection of malaria ought to be accomplished through a ‘rigorously enough’ working system to eradicate the devasting condition of malaria.
What impact does Australian quarantine policy framework have that rigorously enough to confront the malaria disease during the last few decades in Australia?
Throughout centuries, malaria has been one of humankind’s most noteworthy deadly disease. There are approximately 300 to 500 million of health care centre per year globally, roughly 2 million are devastating, especially the offspring’s (Clin Exp Immunol, 2003). Malaria is a contagious disease which is transmitted by plasmodium parasites through bloodstream, as a result of a mosquito bite. Even though, quite seldom it can be transferred by hereditary disease, sharing injection or a plasma transfusion (Know Pathology, 2016). Plasmodium is a family of unicellular eukaryotes that entails 2 hosts in order to live – a mosquito vector and a vertebrate host (Collins & Jeffery, 2014). 5 brands of plasmodium that cause manifestations are: P. vivax, P. malariae, P.ovale, P. falciparum and main species P. knowlesi is the extremist deadly of this types (CDCP, 2019). The family of anopheles (female mosquito) is the merely one which can transmit those parasites because pregnant mosquito demands blood so that, it can sustain her creating eggs (WEHImovies, 2016).
The contaminated mosquito spreads around about 100-200 sporozoites in skin regardless of, the intrinsic resistant reaction of the primary line guard to demolish them, a little rate make it in. These sporozoites have developed to defeat this boundary through a few mechanical adjustments for instance, cell transversal and motility (Newby et al, 2016). The tiny pump system of female mosquitoes can suck multiple times the weight of her blood in short span of time (Clements, 1992). Swift intake of a sizeable amount of blood by parasitic is often incited by progressive compressions and relaxations of their extraneous instinctive muscles, which implement as dilators (Nayar and Sauerman, 1975)
All framework and procedures have a distinct feature at which they will elaborate the allowance of the passenger abroad. Australia’s export in future will be determined by virtual liberty from vermin and disease. Furthermore, the tendency to prevail quarantine constraints in prospective export marketplaces mostly, rely on Australia possessing a reliable quarantine strategy which is steady with international laws and ethics. Hence, Australian’s quarantine policy has accomplished great things. Studies that have been directed as portion of Nairn Report portrays the amount of invasion of pests and diseases did not amplified in the previous 25 years through exception of infiltrations (Quarantine Policy Framework, 2016).
Malarial parasites are delivered by anopheles (female mosquito), which frequently occurred at sundown and early nightfall. When, contaminated mosquito bites a human, the parasites wander in bloodstream for 1 hour afore entering the liver and reproducing. Subsequently, the parasites reoccur to the bloodstream to outbreak inside the red blood cells till they burst (Malaria, 2016).
Though, mosquitoes may be institute in different parts of the world nevertheless, malaria is found in very specifically places – mosquitoes that can transmit malaria requires hot, rainy tropical and sub-tropical regions (What is malaria?, n.d.). The most known places with the uppermost malaria danger and contagious disease comprising.
- Haiti (in Caribbean)
- Indian sub-continent
- South Pacific Islands (Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea)
- Sub-Saharan Africa
Worldwide, estimates state which are more than billion population are contemporary at extreme hazard of malaria, and almost 600, 000 individuals perish due to this disease annually. Several people who stays unprotected to malaria sojourn in locations subjected to famine, shortage of erudition, and unavailability of clinics are hindering access to redeeming exploration (The Disease, 2017).
Moreover, malaria death rates have dramatically drop from predictable 839, 000 in 2000, about 438,000 of every 2015, a decay of 48%. Most death rate in 2015 were from African District (90%), adhered by South-East Asia County (7%) and Eastern Mediterranean Province (2%). Malaria death level, that reflects populace progression, is predictable to decline in 60% world widely among 2000 to 2015. Accordingly, fundamental development has being declared regarding World Health Assembly exact of falling of malaria affliction by 75% in 2015.
Based on the recent malaria prevention, the death rate has ultimately decreased. In the year 2000, there were no rate diminishes in a nation and malaria death were even under the least favourable conditions. From 2000 to 2015, the enormous scale-up of malaria protection and management interference redeemed around 6.8 million individuals internationally and death rate in Africa were minimised by more than half. In the past 15 years, the percentage dropped in malarial death have typically decreased by 60%. This is a massive decrease and the quarantine is thriving on the manner to decline this. Nevertheless, this is assuming that this negative linear trend will keep going in these nations. If it adhered these trends, it will be suggested that malaria will be eradicated in 2020-2025. This will solely be the issue if it will be restricted to humans and all victims are keep away until, they will be healed.
This graph displays that the number of cases of malaria death rate have affectedly decrease from 2000 to 2009 and is expected to continue dropping centred on the trend perceived. The cases worldwide and the death worldwide reveals unalike data. The case continued to elevate whereas, the deaths initiate to reduce. No all infected with malaria are destined to death nonetheless, mortality happens in early infants with malaria.
This graph demonstrations that malaria is worst in young and befits less severe as old people. For that reason, mortality rate is between those of infants. Parasitaemia (green curve) reflects to elaborate the content of parasites in the blood and manifestations are minor. This expounds why maximum malaria deaths are in infants.
The research question, “What impact does Australian quarantine policy framework have that rigorously enough to confront the malaria disease during the last few decades in Australia?” was addressed through considering evidence of malarial prevention which dealt with both globally and nationally. The year 2000 to 2015 almost exclusively eliminate the fatality of malaria across the globe. Although, these outcome shows an overwhelming results, it is verified through further research that progression has been conducted. Conclusions can still be achieved through evidence collected though, they are not fairly straight forward as anticipated. A vast conclusion to the research question would be that countries with quarantine method of malarial prevention are quite safer when, malaria threats life-consuming are spread.
Once, this applied to the initial claim of, “countries that follow quarantine methods are not rigorous enough for malaria prevention”, the verdicts absolutely disprove the claim. The verdicts declare that a country that implement quarantine method play an important role in preventing malaria.
Potential limitations of the results
Throughout the researching, various constraints have appeared. This have being revealed in order the results of researches to be considered valid. Some limitations are included below:
- Since, 2000 malaria has severely attacked many people especially, countries that are experience potential poverty and lack of access to healthcare insurance.
- By 2015, the clinical progression attained a dangerous stage and provided a positive results to all 15, 000 babies and youngsters from Sub-Saharan Africa.
- The trend illustrations was not good enough to negotiate Austrian quarantine policy framework takes a considerably prevention against malaria. Consequently, it is expected to have all being solved to ensure that quarantine methods don’t fully explored with any campaigns.
- Some of the evidence collected derived from sources which didn’t particular the date at which they were published while, Wikipedia was not allowed to be cited as a source. This questions the validity and accuracy of some of the scientific concepts gathered.
Improvements and extensions to the investigation
In order to respond the limitations of the investigation, improvements and extensions would be made to the investigation by:
- Researching the influence of more malarial prevention within Australian as this would improve the reliability of the investigation as well as enhance comprehending of malarial prevention.
- To make sure that all sources utilised in researching are current and trustworthy.
- Gathering evidence relating to the Australian quarantine policy framework between 2000 and 2015. It can be established whether rigorously enough is a crucial factor in determining malarial prevention.
To sum up, the research question, “What impact does Australian quarantine policy framework have that rigorously enough to confront the malaria disease during the last few decades in Australia?” was addressed. In contrast, malaria has been a massive public health issue although, it is both avoidable and curable (CDC and Malaria, 2017). The quarantine methods have worked for many countries effectively and minimised the severity of malaria. Therefore, World Health Organisation has play a vital role in fighting against malaria corresponding to national actions and interventions. This proposes that no particular places is inferior to the other if they associate and support each other in terms of being resistant to malaria. Therefore, the claim ‘countries that follow quarantine methods are not rigorous enough for malaria prevention’ is profoundly explored.
- Charlotte Hammerton, D. C. (2019, March 23). Malaria Prevention. Retrieved from Zava Abroad: https://www.zavamed.com/uk/how-to-prevent-malaria.html
- Springer (2018). Retrievd from Prevention Efforts for Malaria
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2017, September 29). Retrieved from Quarantine and Isolation: https://www.cdc.gov/quarantine/index.html
- The Carter Centre (2019). Retrieved from The Hispaniola Initiative: https://www.cartercenter.org/health/malaria-hispaniola/index.html?gclid=EAIaIQobChMIqs7MusaK5QIVBWoqCh0k6Q5IEAAYASAAEgIBYvD_BwE
- Clin Exp Immunol. (2003, August). The war between the malaria parasite and the immune system: immunity, immunoregulation and immunopathology. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1808775/
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- Collins, W. E., & Jeffery, G. M. (2014, October 1). Plasmodium malariae: parasite and disease. Retrieved from https://cmr.asm.org/content/20/4/579
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019, January 28). Malaria biology. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/malaria/about/biology/index.html
- WEHImovies. (2016, February 18). Malaria lifecycle part 1: human host (2016) [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=237&v=1v55yg0RfoY
- Clements, A. N. (1992). The Biology of Mosquitoes. New York: CABI Publishing.
- Malaria. (2016). Retrieved from Better Health Channel: https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/malaria
- The Disease. (2017, April 21). Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: https://www.cdc.gov/malaria/about/faqs.html
- CDC and Malaria. (2017, April). Retrieved from World Health Organisation: https://www.cdc.gov/malaria/resources/pdf/fsp/cdc_malaria_program_508.pdf