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Population Growth In China From 1955 To 2020

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China are said to be developed nation with highest number of population. In 1970 there was drastic decrease in China’s fertility rate, after a period of fluctuation of fertility rate around replacement level in 1920’s, there was drop of fertility rate below replacement level in the year 1990’s. Through the census analysis of 2000 there was decrease of fertility rate to 1.4%-1.6% (Quabao Jang, Shuzhuo Li and Marcus W. Feldman, 2013, as cited in Morgan et al. 2009), and the analysis of 2010 census reveals that the fertility rate of China is below the replacement level (Quabao Jang, Shuzhuo Li and Marcus W. Feldman, 2013, as cited in PCO, 2012). The dramatic decline of the fertility rate of China is due to policy emplaced by the government and the socio economic developments (Quabao Jang, ShuzhuoLli and Marcus W. Feldma, 2013).

During 1958 there was decrease in population rate due to plan rapidly modernize China’s economy, a catastrophic famine was ensued which resulted in the death of tens million of Chinese (conett, 2019). According to the recent demographic analysis there were 680 million births and 225 million deaths which give approximately of 2 percent average growth rate in China (Jowett, july 1984). However there was varied in growth rate due to economic disaster (1962-65),where the death rate exceed the birth rate leading to decline of population by several million, an increase of death rate and decrease in birth rate lead to decrease in food production by 25 percent (Jowett, july 1984).

In the early 1970’s there was decrease in population due to the family planning program and one child policy which was implemented by the government in China and by the mid 1970’s the China’s government focuses on family planning program where they provided incentives and reward(better employment opportunities, higher wages and government assistance) to the families who adhere to the one child policy and those who ignored the policy were subject to fines , access to government assistance and employment opportunities would be difficult for them. In 1979 the one child policy was introduce by the leader Deng Xiaoping in order to curb the rapid growth of population (conett, 2019). The strict population policy have brought up decline in fertility rate in the 20 years as well as the unforeseen side effects like high male biased sex ratio at birth and rapid aging (Quabao Jang, Shuzhuo Li and Marcus W. Feldma, 2013). China one child policy lead to the abortion of female fetuses, abortion is legal in China but sex selective is not legal in China (conett, 2019).

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With the advancement of medical sectors it leads to the growth of population in China. China is a gender imbalance country due to their cultural preference for male offspring’s in order to take their linage throughout the generation (conett, 2019). The decrease in fertility rate is not solely due to population policy, it is also due to economic development (Quabao Jang, Shuzhuo Li and Marcus W. Feldman, 2013, as cited in Tien, 1984). Population policy and socio-economic development exerted equal influences in decline of fertility rate by the year 1970 -1980, but the proper family planning influence the decrease in fertility rate / population rate in the 1900’s and 2000’s (Quabao Jang, Shuzhuo Li and Marcus W. Feldman, 2013, as cited in Greenhalgh and Winkler, 2005).

From the analysis of 1900-2000 census reported that the population growth was 4.7% (1.06 per % annually) and during 2000-2010 census, the population growth was 5.8% (0.58 per% annually) respectively. Many investigations were done in different area of China based on the decreasing of population rate. From investigation it had shown that socio-economic have high emphasis in decreasing fertility rate (Quabao Jang, Shuzhuo Li and Marcus W. Feldman, 2013, as cited in Cai, 2010). Due to development and modernization there is increasing of education cost and high cost of child raising lead to decrease in fertility rate below replacement level, would remain below even government were to give up on the current one child policy (Quabao Jang, Shuzhuo Li and Marcus W. Feldman, 2013, as cited in Merli and Morgene, 2010).

China growing population led to the growing concern to the nation as they had the highest population in the world with 667.1 million in 1960. China government in order to control the birthrate they came up with the one child policy which had been very effective measure taken by the Chinese government in the year 1970. Chinese government they had given incentives and more employment opportunities to the people who had followed the policy and people who dined the policy were made to pay fines. Though these policies reduce the population but it brought negative impacts such as aging population, gender discrimination and lead to abortion of fetus. By the year 1980 with the development there was increase in education cost, raising child was also expensive so, people they tend to prefer two children since they find them as liability (Quabao Jang, Shuzhuo Li and Marcus W. Feldma, 2013). Chinese government initiated family planning programs which also help the government to reduce the fertility rate.


  1. Bank, W. (1960). China population. United states Census Bureau.
  2. Conett, W. (2019, july 7). investopedia. understanding the China’s former one child policy .
  3. Jowett, A. (july 1984). The growth of China’s population 1949-1982(with special references to the demographic disasters of 1960-1961). The geographical journal , 155-170.
  4. Quabao Jang, Shuzhuo Li and Marcus W. Feldma. (2013). China’s population policy at the crossroad: social impacts and prospects. HHS public acess , 193-218.

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