Being homeless is a state when a person does not have anything to survive. When there is no shelter to live in. According to sociology theory, it is a serious issue in the world and our society. There are various causes behind this issue. Major causes of homelessness are Family disputes, imminent eviction, poor governmental policies, bad addiction, debt, and low level of education and mental health problems in people. These glitches can occur due to unemployment, low salaries. Some of these problems denote biographical difficulties among which social and personal conflict and subjective factors are accountable. Becoming homeless gives birth to a lot of things like depression and other serious health issues (Testoni, Russotto, Zamperini & De Leo, 2018). Poverty is one of the biggest issues in the world and many countries are tackling this issue causing homelessness. There are three articles chosen for the literature review based on homelessness. This indicates there are various reasons and roots behind homelessness, possible steps are described, taken by the government to prevent it in different countries. I will focus on the methods used in articles to figure out reasons and policies to stop homelessness at different levels.
To begin with, in the first article case study is used to describe homelessness and its prevention policies. In big countries many assurances toward homelessness are evident (Szeintuch, 2017). Different countries are dealing with it at different stages. Moreover, some countries taking it at the primary prevention level and some broke it into three stages to tackle it. Prevention policies to homelessness are explained using a case study of Israel’s policies. It is described in the article that search indicates the council of Europe’s European Committee on social rights examined whether countries are ensuring the rights to housing or not. Six in the eight EU members state committee are failed to complete this fundamental. Those failed countries to ensure housing left people to live in inadequate accommodation. People waited years on social housing lists. Many faced increased debt levels and were forced to evict (Szeintuch, 2017). Based on these findings of search in Europe, North America, and Australia the literature proposed the appropriate need approach to design the solutions to homeless policy. On the contrary, there are problems listed standing in the way to homeless prevention. It is difficult to ensure that prevention has targeted the ‘right’ population. Second thing is that prevention targeted in one country may be different in another. Consequently, homelessness prevention and effectiveness should be carefully accessed.
Three main questions are used in a search to develop a framework for homelessness prevention. The first one is to consider that who is at most risk and how to identify it. The second thing to consider that where homelessness comes from, did they owned a house before becoming homeless. Thirdly, what events participate in the causes? Do families or individuals become homeless? Further, it is proposed that various reasons can be behind homelessness like structural, institutional and personal, or interpersonal. In the methodology, materials are collected from the Israeli government and local authorities (Szeintuch, 2017). The issue was based on a variety of materials, bills laws, letters, and reports summaries, papers stories, videos, and audiotapes. The policy of homeless prevention in Israel is based on these findings. Data is given in a descriptive way of the findings. There are particular rules to be followed on street dwellers. While finding if people are eligible for housing there are characteristics to consider on the people who need housing (Szeintuch, 2017). History is given behind homelessness and three levels of prevention policies are described. The three levels of primary, secondary and tertiary are methods to intervene the homelessness. Examples are given of collected data. These steps are helpful to stop homelessness in any country at the initial stage and reduce the number of new cases. This search is done in an effective way.
In the second article, the author shed light on India’s government policies and the number of homelessness. There are various reasons behind homeless people in every country. In India economic growth, exclusion from class, society, and family are major factors behind homelessness. Collected data indicate that in India there is not a big variance in the growth of India than in other developed countries but still there is a number of people living below the poverty line in India. There are cases to be noticed like, illiteracy, increased number of child abuse, and child labor. There are millions of people living on the roads. However, economic growth is increased at a huge level in India but still, there is an imbalance between the distributions of government policies between the people (D’Souza, 2018). Every year new schemes are introduced in the favor of people but still left millions of Indians unaffected. There are various reasons the biggest thing is corruption in the system all those policies and funds for poor people never reach them.
Corrupt Politicians in the system misuse their positions. Poor people are at the bottom line of fruits. The random sampling method is used to present a study of homelessness. It is also shown that inequality of income distribution is the biggest cause. Major cities are mentioned like, Bangalore and Chennai. People who live on roads and sleep on roads are described as those who do not have a good education level. They live at the poverty line, do not use their rights, and are not aware of anything going around them. These are basic problems in people. Table chart is given indicating specific numbers and percentages of homeless people, their gender, and particular selected years in the study (D’Souza, 2018). Domestic violence, low income, rural-urban migration, family and lack of social support, mental illness, and disability are the major factors behind the causes of homelessness. All the data is given in a particular and effective way. Useful suggestions are proposed to eliminate the homeless in India. Inclusive growth should become a major policy that every citizen of the country must share the benefit of the country’s growth. These suggested policies and frameworks can be implemented in all countries to get out of this problem because the era of globalization gear toward development and profit there is a need for justice in the distribution of rules to save humanity.
The third article is based on the United States and improved homelessness in the rural areas. It is revealed that in cities people on the roads are easily highlighted and acknowledged as homeless. They are provided with housings by the associations but in rural areas, there are people living in inadequate conditions. They are struggling with their earnings, day-to-day life, family disputes, and individual situations. Those rural areas are lacking in funds and developments. The point-in-time survey is used to perform the study on homelessness. Furthermore, a bar graph is used to indicate research based on ten years (as cited in Yousey & Samudra 2018). It shows that homelessness is almost stable to some extent. During ten years period, it only decreased from 80,000 to less than 70,000. Which is not a huge change. The data is available to the public reported online at the state level. A view is given from previous studies. Three different levels are mentioned which distinguish homelessness at different levels. There are limitations highlighted in form of federal policies which hinder the progress of rural areas.
There are different areas divided into groups of people who do not like living in another group of people. Different people living in different provinces do not share their funds and growth with other provinces which drags other people down. People living in rural areas are most affected by poverty. Equal distribution of rules and policies by the government can help in their growth (as cited in Yousey & Samudra 2018). This study indicates that there are no perfect solutions but still changes can be implemented to help homeless people.
In a nutshell, in all three articles, various reasons are mentioned behind homelessness. Studies are shown in a specific way. Various suggestions are made to eradicate homelessness from the countries and world. No one in the world wants to become poor and homeless intentionally. The government body is the first who can come forward and take faster and accurate decisions and actions on this problem. It is hard to imagine life without a house. Society and individuals can come forward to help people. Countries can tackle this problem by helping each other at the world level.