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Reflective Essay on the Importance of Research Methods for D.A.R.E Program Provision

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Research Methods

1937 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Albert Szent-Györgyi once said, “discovery is seeing what everybody else has seen, and thinking what nobody else has thought.” Research is a discovery of things – and to discover community is to know its background through research. Research is essential especially in the field of Psychology. Research is both utilized and an essential tool for Community Psychology. Through research and its methodology, we can measure programs contextually. Research plays an important role in understanding a community contextually.

Research plays an important role in the flourishing of our community. (Bess, Fisher, Sonn, & Bishop, 2002) There different recorded studies that influence Community Psychology. One study standout as many of people spent money and effort for it. It is the DARE program of 1983. (Glantsman, O’Brien, & Ramian, 2019)

DARE program stands for Drug Abuse Resistance Education which seeks to prevent drug, gang, and violent behavior in the Los Angeles schools. It was an initiative made by LAPD Chief Daryl Gates and the Los Angeles Unified School District. DARE programs was their envisioned action to the American war on drugs. However, several studies disproved it. Some of the studies are the following: Ennet, Tobble, Ringwalt, and Flewelling (1994) stated that DARE program does not prevent drug use using meta-analysis. Aniskiewicz and Wysong (1987) also evaluated that Project DARE was ineffective on preventing drugs for schools.

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There lots of studies that disproved this theory. However, it was redeveloped by Dr. Richard Clayton and now focuses on programs like anti-bullying, and the like. Research is part of our field. In every aspect of the Psychology, research is vital as it provides backbone for a claim. These studies help community to further upgrade and update in promoting social justice and community awareness. Studies, like DARE program, are eye-openers that promote an ethical and proper conducting of research. (Matthews & Kostelis, 2019) It is important to have an effective and backed by studies of programs in order to conduct a program.

These programs promote community participation, awareness, and security. I realize that not all “experts”-based programs are effective. Some may be appealing as it carries the name “experiment” or “study”. We should always remember to support our claims with studies and literatures. These related literatures and studies provide not only similar claims but support that proves your claim. Research should be ethical and accurate as your related literatures. This will mitigate your study to be disproved.

Research helps Community Psychology to understand its problem contextually. Several studies, like DARE program, may be ineffective but further being developed and vamped. Additionally, there are other methodologies or experiments that may be effective in engaging to our community.


  1. Aniskiewicz, R. E. and E. E. Wysong. 1987. Project DARE Evaluation Report: Kokomo Schools Spring, 1987. Kokomo: Indiana University at Kokomo,Department of Sociology.
  2. Bess K.D., Fisher A.T., Sonn C.C., Bishop B.J. (2002) Psychological Sense of Community: Theory, Research, and Application. In: Fisher A.T., Sonn C.C., Bishop B.J. (eds) Psychological Sense of Community. The Plenum Series in Social/Clinical Psychology. Springer, Boston, MA.
  3. Ennett, S. T., Tobler, N. S., Ringwalt, C. L., & Flewelling, R. L. (1994). How effective is drug abuse resistance education? A meta-analysis of Project DARE outcome evaluations. American journal of public health, 84(9), 1394–1401.
  4. Jason, L. A., Glantsman, O., O’Brien, J. F., & Ramian, K. N. (2019). Introduction to the field of Community Psychology. In L. A. Jason, O. Glantsman, J. F. O’Brien, & K. N. Ramian (Eds.), Introduction to Community Psychology: Becoming an agent of change. Retrieved from
  5. Matthews, T. & Kostelis, K. (2019). Ethics in Research. 10.4324/9780429452314-11

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Reflective Essay on the Importance of Research Methods for D.A.R.E Program Provision. (2022, September 27). Edubirdie. Retrieved February 3, 2023, from
“Reflective Essay on the Importance of Research Methods for D.A.R.E Program Provision.” Edubirdie, 27 Sept. 2022,
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