Slavery is a concept that has existed in various forms in all societies since the beginning of human history. Although it has been banned from the past to the present with various legal and administrative arrangements and theological approaches, slavery has in fact never disappeared. On the contrary, the concept of the concept of slavery, which is based on the relationship of ownership, has been gradually expanded over time and has been articulated by processes such as human trafficking, forced labor and debt captivity. As a result of this expansion, the concept of slavery has been replaced by modern slavery.
Firstly theoretical explanations are given about modern slavery and the concepts of forced labor and human trafficking. The types of modern slavery were then evaluated. Following this, the analyzes made by different institutions on modern slavery are presented and finally the strategies to combat modern slavery are discussed.
The Concept of Modern Slavery
Slavery has existed for thousands of years in various forms and in all civilizations. Although it was abolished and banned in developed countries in the 19th and 20th centuries, slavery was moved to different areas over time, and the informal economy, race based discrimination and so on added with topics.
Slavery has traditionally been defined as a process of persistent, violent domination, often confronted by individuals excluded from society. In the literature, there is a broad consensus that violence or control of another person plays a central role in slavery. Violence ensures the continuation of the relationship of domination in slavery.
Slavery has been used synonymously with the concepts of trafficking and forced labor for a long time. There have also been studies that define slavery within national boundaries and identify this concept with forced labor. Historically, both approaches have one thing in common: the management of the process based on violence.
Palermo Protocol 1 also known and adopted in 2000 In addition to the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime, the Protocol on the Prevention, Stopping and Punishment of Trafficking in Persons, in particular Women and Children, emphasizes sexual exploitation, forced labor, slavery and organ trafficking, while defining the concept of trafficking. In the convention, human trafficking is based on the subject of exchange, transportation, transfers, housing or earning from people for the purpose of exploitation.
In this sense, methods such as coercion, threat or use of force are considered to be elements of trafficking, fraud, deception, abuse of power, and dealing with an individual’s debts or earnings against his / her consent in order to control it.
Forced labor 2, a concept developed by the International Labor Organization (ILO), is a concept adopted by the international community, including women and men, girls and boys, and includes the following elements:
- i) Working of the individual against his / her free will.
- ii) employers or their intermediaries to employ violence, threats or permanent debts. iii) the retention of employers or intermediaries with the threat of notifying their identity or passport to the authorities.
Such cases have also begun to be considered as slavery-like practices in recent studies. International rules of law define forced labor as a crime and foresee that penalties for crime should be such as to prevent the rise of crime. Governments and their partners need to develop more efficient and effective policies than today to improve the fight against forced labor
However, the studies also show that this type of work, which is considered as a criminal activity and hidden by various methods and which is carried out by passing the laws from behind, makes the struggle difficult. For this reason, the ILO supports the national governments in their struggle with various activities.