The Aristocracy on the Romanticism in the William Faulkner’s Three Stories: A Rose For Emily, Absalom, Absalom, As I Lay Dying

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Romanticism was an artistic literary musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe towards the end of the 18th century and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period. From 1800 to 1850 romanticism was characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of all the past and nature, preferring the medieval rather than the classical. It was partly a reaction to the industrial revolution, the aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment, and the scientific rationalization of nature_allcomponents of modernity. It was embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music and literature, but had a major impact on historiography, education, chess, social sciences and the natural sciences. It had a significant and complex effect on politics, with romantic thinkers influencing liberalism, radicalism, conservatism, and nationalism. The movement emphasized intense emotion as an authentic source of aesthetic experience, placing new emphasis on such emotions as apprehension, horror and terror and awe -especially those experienced in confronting the new categories of the sublimity and beauty of nature. It elevated folk art and the ancient custom to something noble, but also spontaneity as a desirable characteristic(as in the musical impromptu).In contrast to the rationalism and classicism of the Enlightenment, romanticism revived medievalism and elements of art and narrative perceived as authentically medieval in an attempt to escape population growth, early urban sprawl, and industrialism. Although the movement was rooted in the German Sturm und Dung movement which preferred intuition and emotion to the rationalism of the Enlightenment, the events and ideologies of the French Revolution were also proximate factors. Romanticism assigned a high value to the achievements of 'heroic' individualists and artists, whose examples, it maintained, would raise the quality of society. It also promoted the individual imagination as a critical power that allowed of freedom from classical notions of form in art. There was a strong recourse to historical and natural inevitability, a Zeitgeist, in the representation of its ideas. In the second half of the 19th century, realism was offered as a polar opposite to romanticism during this time was associated with multiple processes, including social and political changes and the spread of nationalism.


In literature, romantics found themes in the evocation or criticism of the past, the cult of 'Sensibility' with its emphasis on women and children, the isolation of the artist or narrator, and respect for nature. Several romantic writers such as EDGAR ALLEN POE and NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE based their writings on supernatural occult and human psychology. Romanticism tended to regard satire as something unworthy of serious attention, a prejudice still influential today. The romantic movement in literature was preceded by the Enlightenment and succeeded by realism. Some authors cite such as ISABELLA di MORRA was an early precursor of romantic literature. Her lyrics covering themes of isolation and lone lineless, which reflected the tragic events of her life, are considered 'an impressive preferment of romanticism'. Differing from the Patriarchist fashion of the time based on the philosophy of love. TRISTRAM SHANDY a novel by LAURENCE STERNE introduced a whimsical version of the anti_national sentimental novel to the English literary public.

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Some writers such as GOETHE wrote some nationalism works and some of them such as JOHNN GOTTLIEB FITCH, FRIEDRICH SCHELLING, HEGEL, SCHILLER and the brothers of SCHLEGEL, LUDWIG TIECK, NOVALIS and many others were the important writers in the German romantic period.

Great Britain:

Some writers like WILLIAM WORDSWORTH, SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE, JOHN KEATS, LORD BYRON, PERCY BYSSHE SHELLEY and the much older WILLIAM BLAKE followed later by the isolated figure of JOHN CLARE.


ALLAN RAMSAY, ABBIE, stanza as a poetic form. JAMES MACPHERSON, OSSIAN, and… also followed and wrote the classical epics and works. Some of them like JOHANN GOTTFRIED VON HERDER and JOHANN WOLFGANG VON GOETHE followed and wrote some works about NAPOLEON. ROBERT BURNS and WALTER SCOTT were highly influenced by the OSSIAN cycle. Scotland was also the location of two of the most important literary magazines of the era, The EDINBURGH REVIEW, and the BLACK WOOD magazine had a major impact on the development of British literature and drama in the era of romanticism.


The American gentry were members of the American upper classes, particularly early in the settlement of the united states. Every gun that is made, every warship launched, and every rocket fired signifies, in the final sense, a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and are not clothed. The eventful history of aristocracy dates back several centuries, though it's historical significance and development down the years are often unclear

The Aristocracy In 'A Rose For Emily' By William Faulkner:

The aristocracy and many aristocratic titles play a key role in human history. Aristocrats existed in ancient EGYPT, imperial china and japan, Mesopotamia, the Roman empire and in many other ruling dynasties. Some researches show that aristocracy did not play a role in every advanced civilization: the Roman writer, Tacitus, wrote in his works, for example, about the equality between all people that once governed society, and pointed out that the hereditary acquisition of aristocratic status only became common with the passage of time. Historical findings like so-called princely tombs demonstrate, however, that many centuries and even millennia ago there were already members of society with a higher rank. The term 'nobility' represents different forms of higher social status. It means that the condition depends on the period, history, and region.

Body: A Rose for Emily Now let us look at these issues as reflected in 'A ROSE for EMILY'.As seen in the depictions of her below, Emily _ Grierson the eponymous heroine of 'A Rose for Emily' is a ruined aristocratic. Emily's house was a big, squarish frame house that had once been white, ….and many others features tell us the aristocracy had used in the story. Emily's house, like Emily herself, is a monument, the only remaining emblem of a dying world of southern aristocracy. Emily's house also represents alienation mental illness and death. It is a shrine to the living past, and the sealed upstairs bedroom is her macabre trophy room where she preserves the main she would not allow to leave her. The house, like its owner, is an object of fascination for them. Emily's death is a chance for them to gain access to this forbidden realm and confirm their wildest notions and most sensationalistic suppositions about what had occurred on the inside.

The Strand of Hair :

The strand of hair is a reminder of love lost and the often perverse things people do in their pursuit of happiness. The strand of hair also reveals the inner life of a woman who, despite her eccentricities, was committed to living life on her own terms and not submitting her behavior, no matter how shocking, to the approval of others. Emily subscribes to her own moral code and occupies a world of her own invention, where even murder is permissible. Her hair grows more and more grizzled until it becomes a' vigorous iron _gray'.

Much of this clarity can be attributed to the intensity of Faulkner's vision for the work and the careful planning and outlining he did before sitting down to write. Whereas Faulkner conceived many of his other works in a scattered fashion, he fully imagined the innovative concepts of A Rose for Emily ahead of time. Furiously scribbling down his revolutions on the. Back of an upturned wheelbarrow.

Natural Aristocracy:

History, Ideology, and the Production of William Faulkner:

Kevin Riley uses a materialistic critical approach that envisions literature as a discourse necessarily interactive with other forces in the world _to identify and historicizes Faulkner's authorial identity.

Citation Information: Railey, Kevin. Natural Aristocracy: History, Ideology, and the production of William Faulkner. The University of Alabama Press, 2012.Project MUSE.muse.jhu.edubook31279.

A Rose. For Emily is the. Natural Aristocracy, cultural and ideological novel. PHILIP WEINS, Faulkner's subject in the shady but ingenious shapes of his first mature novels. In the sound and Fury, sanctuary, and A Rose For Emily, Faulkner did begin to affirm the impulses of his own ego.

Conclusion for A Rose For Emily: As the. As the result, we can say that because in A Rose for Emily we had the symbolism of gothic and darkness, imbalances of the modern period for women, and modernism, so we can say that in this story we have the unnormal role for every woman in modern America period and they spent the. Very hard time because of the imbalance of roles and in conclusion we can say that this is an aristocratic story.

Absalom, Absalom:

In his creation of Yoknapatawpha country, he did begin to move toward the ideological independence Bhaktin claims occurs with all great novelists. Something like their personal life-changing relationship between Faulkner and the world developed his literary life and ideological foundations. During this period Faulkner's life changed dramatically. First, he married Estelle Oldham, who brought with her two children from her first marriage. A high school sweetheart who had married another man after her family had refused to allow her to marry Faulkner, Estelle was alone and. Adrift and wanted Faulkner to rescue her. When he wrote Absalom, Absalom, his mother went to another part of the. Country for one. A year and his brother and father died. In the. Absalom, Absalom we can see the local aristocracy from Thomas Sutpen When he came to Jefferson.

Conclusion of Absalom, Absalom :

Because the story happened in the civil war, the major themes of this story are the civil war, the gothic, darkness and also blood. So because of these themes and because of the analyzing Absalom, Absalom is a civil war story in the darkness and war period, so it's very clear that we have so many classes in the society, and also we have an aristocracy in the story. One of the schools in Absalom, Absalom is narcissism which is related to the aristocracy in the public behaviors at the end.

Sartorius: is a novel first published in 1929, by William Faulkner. . It about portrays the decay of the Mississippi following the social American civil war. The novel deals with the decay of an aristocratic southern family just after the end of world war I. The novel begins with the return of young Bayard Sartorius to Jeffers from the first world war.


The main aim of the thesis is to analyze the decline of the. So-called southern aristocracy in two selected novels by William Faulkner, namely Absalom, Absalom and The Sound and the Fury. Their protagonists are members of rich planter family in the first case, or as in the. Second case descendants of such a family. In this novel we see materialism and spirituality, the latter being the beginning of the former. The next two chapters represent the core of the thesis,i.e.the the application of the theatrical concepts from the introductory chapters to the analysis of aristocratic characters of Absalom, Absalom, and The Sound and the Fury.

Article: Sins of the Father: Patriarchy and the Old South in the Early Works of William Faulkner. John Easterbrook, Manhattan College, Riverdale, New York

The events in the civil war and reconstruction led to the decline of patriarchy in the old South. With the end of the war, the social and economic foundation and structure began to collapse. Whit this collapse, the role of the father within the family and society as a whole greatly changed. The father's power loss created a situation where Sothern's fathers 'could not help but feel dwarfed by the formidable ghosts of their forefathers. (Bleikasten 121_22).In most of his work, Faulkner is concerned with the father's fall and it's the effect on future generations. In the years following the civil war, the old South came to exist on a nostalgic, mythical level.

Article: short story cycle and for a new appreciation of its generically impressed by what they deemed was a collection of interlinked stories, most literary critics since the mid-20th expectations and is instrumental in determining our appreciation and evaluation of literary works. For example, the view of what is to be considered a collection of stories with little internal coherence would undercut the notion that is overall thematic complexity is worthy of serious critical attention. Similarly, reading the book as a novel would eclipse the brilliant diversity of the book's disparate plot lines. Both readings would fail to ad equally evaluate The Unvanquished place in the development of Faulkner's artistic oeuvre and deny the book a place of note in what is arguably the most important decade in Faulkner's artistic career. The genre of the short story cycle has roots that go back to ancient times. The Odyssey and Iliad, the Panchatantra, and Ovid's metamorphoses are such cycles and many other literary histories are in this genre. The schools of Faulkner's stories are feminism modernism and imbalances.

As I Lay Dying:

it’s a naturalistic and worldliness survival story. Some theories show that it was the impressive persona Faulkner conceived. Faulkner's As I Lay Dying could be described as an ode to human strength. It's the tragicomic continuum of life. All characters experience loss and naturalistic determinism. It is a flexible story and it has a resourceful style. It is a remarkable and objective story. It has critical processing and several ironies. This story is redemptive for modernist concerns. It has an acoustic image that epitomizes the use of modernist language. Most of his characters of stories suffer from an identity crisis. It is the marginalization story Faulkner. This story has victims of modernity. It shows modern life. The literary schools of As I Lay Dying are realism and deconstructionism. This story has full of imagery and symbolic items. The major themes in this story are diverse people, handling loss, and independence. This story is about a Southern family. The style of As I Lay Dying is' stream of consciousness. The family bond in As I Lay Dying is so lonely and weak that is almost non–existence. In the first reading of As I Lay Dying, the characters seem to be lonely and separated from their loved ones. However, upon reading the novel a second time, we realized that their isolation from each other is permanent and their loneliness is more like a disease. Another literary school in this story is cyclical symbolism. This is the tragic vision and restoration story. And also it is the civil war story.

Conclusion of As I Lay Dying: We understand from this story the family because of modern life and modernity became lonely and isolated and their behavior changed as the aristocratic people in modern life. So we can say that we have an aristocracy in this story.

Totally Conclusion: We understand from the analysis and criticism of these 3 stories from William Faulkner that in the modern period of American society it has its own social classes and because of the modern era and modernism, one of the items in these stories is aristocracy. In the first story, A Rose for Emily, we see the aristocracy in the high classes of society. In the second story, Absalom, Absalom, we see the darkness and war period. One of the features of the war period is aristocracy because in the war period we have 2 kinds of social classes. One of them is a low class which cannot win in the war because they are poor people. However, another is the high class of society which can win in the war position. In the third story, As I Lay Dying, we have some naturalistic symbols of aristocracy and we have aristocratic characters.

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The Aristocracy on the Romanticism in the William Faulkner’s Three Stories: A Rose For Emily, Absalom, Absalom, As I Lay Dying. (2022, September 27). Edubirdie. Retrieved June 21, 2024, from
“The Aristocracy on the Romanticism in the William Faulkner’s Three Stories: A Rose For Emily, Absalom, Absalom, As I Lay Dying.” Edubirdie, 27 Sept. 2022,
The Aristocracy on the Romanticism in the William Faulkner’s Three Stories: A Rose For Emily, Absalom, Absalom, As I Lay Dying. [online]. Available at: <> [Accessed 21 Jun. 2024].
The Aristocracy on the Romanticism in the William Faulkner’s Three Stories: A Rose For Emily, Absalom, Absalom, As I Lay Dying [Internet]. Edubirdie. 2022 Sept 27 [cited 2024 Jun 21]. Available from:

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