Indian women writers in recent decades have produced abundant literary output. These writers probe into human relationship since it is closely connected with the mind and heart. In order to make the process of change smooth and really meaningful, women writers have taken upon them-selves this great task of their crusade against established traditions. It is only after the Second World War that women novelists of quality have begun enriching Indian fiction in English. Of these writers, Kamala Markandaya and Anita Desai are unquestionably the most outstanding.
A large number of critical articles and some full length studies with regard to the two writers have appeared individually. However, except for an article or two, not many studies have attempted a comparative analysis of married Indian women in the novels of these two writers. They are ready for sacrificing themselves. Hence, this study seeks to examine the portrayal of married women by these two contemporary Indian women novelists. The thrust of the study is on the depiction of women in particular because the protagonists are women in almost all of their novels chosen for study. Three novels of each writer in particular, which are relevant for the study, have been taken to assert the title, An Indian Wife.
The prime concern of Anita Desai has been the exploration of the inner selves of her married women protagonists, who are always in search of their identity, where as Kamala Markandaya attempts to focus on the inborn superior characteristic features of the Indian wife, who tries to keep the family ties intact. Her first novel ‘Nectar in a Sieve’ treats the theme of hunger and starvation in Indian villages. It depicts the rural life of the south India. It reflects the real condition of peasant woman and farmers in the light of contemporary India. It tells the story of India that what the picture of India was after the independence. It shows the difficulties, suffering, disasters, desolation and problems of Indian peasants.
For the first time, Kamala Markandaya dramatizes the East –West conflict. It is a novel of violence and destruction. Essentially, it is a political novel. It is also a tragic novel like ‘Nectar in a Sieve’. The novel deals with political passions prevailing over love and justice. The clash between passion and patriotism is presented in the novel. The Inner Fury is suggestive of Indian passion for independence. Kamala Markandaya’s second novel ‘Some Inner Fury’ is entirely different from ‘Nectar in a Sieve’. Her novels can be examined as the manifesto of female predicament. She has deep psychological insight into her characters. Her novels reveal feministic concerns with the predicament of women in male dominated society. Most of the women novelists are concerned with human relationship, social realities and woman’s predicament. Every writer is the product of the age in which he/she writes and Kamala Markandaya and Anita Desai are no exception in this respect. In the realm of literature, they are one of the most famous of the modern Indian writers.
What is true of women writers is equally true of all women in general. A small noise gone unheard by man may be a big bang for woman. Any small incident of bloodshed or violence may cause rupture in her. All these thoughts and emotions are genuinely handled by both the writers. In her novel Clear Light Of Day. Anita Desai explores two sisters’ very different positions within the home, the family and the post independence upper middle class Indian society, which lead to one woman’s leaving and the other women staying in the homeland and the domestic sphere.
The novel tells the story of an anglicized upper middle-class Indian family from the 1940s to the 1970s. The protagonist Bim Das is an unmarried elder sister who as young woman at the time of partition must take the place of her dead parents as guardian of her siblings and custodian of the crumbling family home in Delhi. She has to sacrifice her personal interest and dreams to take care of an autistic brother and an alcoholic aunt after her older brother Raja leaves the family to pursue a future of his own. Her younger sister Tara eventually marries a diploma and escapes the suffocating paralysis of the family home for Europe and America. Desai describes Bim’s efforts to expand her identity beyond the pseudo – motherhood she has had to take up and to come to terms with a family and society that often curb those efforts. The novel culminates in the two sisters’ painful attempts to make sense of the ways in which family and home have shaped their perceptions of themselves and each other. Alienation and east-west, cultural encounter is the theme of her another.
‘Cry, the Peacock’ is Maya’s story, the story of her married life with Gautam, and nearly the whole story is that remembrance of things past by Maya herself. The novel begins with the death of Maya’s pet dog, Toto and the way it affects her. it had been not the pet’s death alone that she mourned, however another sorrow, unremembered maybe however not even skilled. Her husband Gautam could be a busy, prosperous, lawyer. he’s refined, rational, sensible and an excessive amount of engrossed in his own affair to satisfy the strain, of his young woman physically, mentally and showing emotion. As a lady she had gone together with her house servant to AN prognosticator with unusual person eyes, and he had prophesied unnatural death four years once her wedding to either husband or wife! And it’s four years currently. The prophecy gets hold of Maya just like the prophecy of the witches upon male monarch.
Rescue from this might are attainable, had Gautam tried, however he was too lost in his own world of temperament and interest. And at some point there’s a windstorm followed by a number of drops of rain and that they go up to the roof. The pale moon has up, and Maya is fascinated and bewitched; they’re at the low parapet’s edge, and once unknowingly Gautam moves before of her, thereby concealment the moon from read, Maya waxes into a sudden delirium and pushes him over the parapet to “pass through an immenseness of air, right down to the terribly bottom”. 3 days later, Gautam’s mother and sister take her to her father’s house at Lucknow, ANd it’s tacitly understood that she’s going to ought to be place in an asylum. within the novel, Bye Bye Blackbird, Desai depicts the growing sense of migrator sensibility during this novel through 3 totally different however connected
The edification, the frustration, the despair, the quandary, the desire, and therefore the despair of the feminine world will best be seen from such ladies writers. Being a girl the writers has additionally given justification to feminine world by writing regarding them. we will see all her novels handle the story of family-drama that is usually vie by the feminine characters. This shows that Anita Desai has used the theme of escape to explore the character of the feminine world and outlook, and reconstructing the lost or suppressed records of feminine expertise. By the technique, she has tried to point out that ladies aren’t born, they’re created. She takes ladies not as a biological species however culturally outlined characteristics.
Anita Desai’s projection of women-characters in her novels shows her first-hand expertise regarding the feminine world with all its sides. In her art of characterization, she has place a lot of light-weight on the emotional or internal world of female-class than the external. She has seen the planet through the eyes of terribly Indian ladies, not through the eyes of intellectual lady with western education. the feminine characters that show her sincerity to the category dominate all her novels. She succeeds to portray advanced nature of ladies through her creations of Maya, Sita, Monisha, Nanda Kaul, Bimla, Tara, and Mira Masi. She has explored the unconscious still as acutely aware elements of ladies, and given the presentation through expertise.
The suffering of Indian ladies, matrimonial dissonance, philosophical theory, anger, twin tradition all notice an area within the novels of Anita Desai. She has given an excellent deal of contribution in transfer forth light-weight of ladies and has shown a glimpses into the world’s heart that had ordered hid from outer world. The edification, the frustration, the despair, the quandary, the desire, and therefore the despair of the feminine world will best be seen from such ladies writers. Kamala Markandaya has seen each East and West as she has lived in England and in Asian country for an extended amount. In her novels notably in ‘Nectar in an exceedingly Sieve’ and ‘A few Rice’ she has delineated the conflicts and tensions between these 2 opposite ways in which of life. She presents the conflict of those 2 totally different cultures with a rare penetration, under-standing and realism. Men, still as ladies characters in her fiction, react in several ways in which to the Indian culture and culture.
Indian ladies writers in recent decades have created rich literary output. These writers probe into relationship since it’s closely connected with the mind and heart. so as to create the method of amendment swish and extremely significant, ladies writers have taken upon them-selves this nice task of their crusade against established traditions. it’s solely once the Second war that ladies novelists of quality have begun enriching Indian fiction in English. of those writers, Kamala Markandaya and Anita Desai area unit unquestionably the foremost outstanding. many ladies writers have tried their hands within the field of fiction/novels. Earlier, novels targeted the social and political problems with the society. there have been stereotypical productions or portrayal of ladies characters and their roles. it’s additionally true that they were principally created by male novelists. Therefore, they were the lopsided presentation as a result of they mirrored the views, estimation of ladies from the understanding of men. They were the reflections of the male opinions and experiences. once someday the state of affairs has modified. The novelists desired to show the society and categorical the science of individuals.
Fasting and eating, renunciation and excess, easy variations of a similar disorder, are key words in a very novel by Anita Desai wherever it’s potential to trace out need and to analyse the scandalising effects of imitation. Challenging the present story of food we will choose from 2 theoretical models: 1) the subtractive model that singles out “favourite institutional scapegoats”, like political establishments, family and society at massive, additionally as psychological aspects, following a mechanistic and philosophical theory logic; 2) the model that puts in relation the parable of food and also the connected violent method of exclusion to the dynamics of mimetic need and to human relationships, following a posh and relative logic. I shall follow Renè financier mistreatment his notions of mimetism and exploitation, with relation to economic process.
Life could be a curious factor. It offers Associate in Nursing abundance of experiences and opportunities, nonetheless every individual encompasses a completely different perspective. In Anita Desai’s abstinence, Feasting, the exchange student from Asian nation, Arun, is confused by the tradition his yank family is decided to stay of planning to the beach. His journey is delineate by the elaborated mental imagery, light-weight humor, and abrupt syntax to make a mirthful scenario. Figurative language adds a brand new level of pleasure to the story. The scene involves life as Arun notes Melanie is “dressed in her bathing costume with a giant shirt drawn over shoulders.” the use o f these minute details create the story presumptive, even relatable. The mental imagery of Mrs. Patton’s “radiant, lipsticked smile” connotes a assured and all-American mother WHO is thirstily awaiting the beach. However, whereas he’s anticipating the event, Arun “finds the hair on the rear of his neck begin to prickle.’ The palms of his hands ore changing into puffy and damp.” This mental imagery can’t be mistaken of something however extremes nervousness and a concern for the unknown.
Desai conjointly uses humor to characterize this notorious trek to the beach. though the weekends commonly marked by the hospitable absence of college or employment,” Arun cannot plead work” to his chagrin. He even begin frantically grasping for “excurses” to not go. On the heels of overenthusiastic Mrs. Patton, each Melanie and Arun “try to lag behind her.” sadly and funny, Melanie “can lag even better” than Arun WHO prefers the town’s “post office” to the “grasses stirring with insidious life” within the methods to the beach.
The metaphors describe Arun’s trepidant journey as he experiences the wide life around him. The cicadas sound as if “the sun is enjoying on their sinews” as if they were little harps suspended within the trees.” This stunning and dream-like musical quality frightens Arun. he’s fully on the far side his comfort level. His entire journey is characterised through the employment of pictures, with, economical sentences, and exquisite metaphors. Ata deeper level, Arun experiences yank together with his foreign n perspective kind Asian nation. within the excerpt from Anita Desai’s abstinence, eating the exchange student Arun is unsettled and troubled by the novel expertise of planning to the beach.
Literary techniques, like purpose of read, reveal Arun’s anxiety in exploring the surface realm of nature together with his host family. His sense of uncomfortable disorientation heightens as he struggles to reconcile yank customs with the huge expanse of Associate in Nursing out-of city expertise. The passage adopts a third-person restricted viewpoint that fluctuates at points to reveal Arun’s nervousness and position of awkwardness. the easy diction of the primary paragraph straight off reveals that Arun is out of place. He “cannot plead work” as she may back in Asian nation, as a result of it’s a weekend and therefore, the eternal conflict manifests itself. The poor exchange student has nonetheless to conform himself together with his America family. Negative connotations within the 1st paragraph ar rife, from “despondent” to “wildly,” Arun frantically makes an attempt to “find excuses,” amplifying his need to not leave home. The repetition of “no” reveals the emphatic nature of Mrs. Patton. Her demand progresses the plot forwards toward the beach.
As the cluster continues on, the distinction drawn between Mrs. Patton and Arun becomes obvious. As she goes “confidently forwards” and begins singing, Arun, close along with her natural actions, seems even a lot of out of place. Approaching the woods, the cluster is greeted by a huge array of images. The visual imaging of “soft pine needles,: combined with the sense modality “thrumming” of cicadas and “bird shrieks” clashes with Arun’s construct of tranquility. Paradoxically, this cacophony of sounds has no roots, as “no birds” square measure “to be seen, nor animals.”
Arun is overpowered by these gift circumstances. Tactile imaging reveals that Arun’s “hair on the rear of his neck” begins to prickle and his palms become “puffy and damp.” Arun is disoriented by this expertise, and therefore the concern is heightened once he raises a rhetorical question; “Why should folks sleep in the neck of the woods of such benighted geographical region and become a locality of it?” the angle all over again shifts to it of first-person, representational process Arun’s reasoning and preference. He feels reception in city and enjoys its quaint offerings, like “its post office” and “its retailers.” The author then contrasts the homely image with a trope of the feral geographical region, AN rhymed “creeping curtain of insidious inexperienced.” The deadly diction of “insidious,” “poisonous,” and “pale” reveal indirectly that Arun is totally not enjoying this expertise. instead of quiet, he has been disjointed from an area of comfort and compelled to get pleasure from the pernicious geographical region
Like i discussed before, the purpose of read of the verbaliser illuminates Arun’s own thoughts thus in an exceedingly sense, Arun is speaking himself. there’s additionally speech inside the animals. The cicadas “shrill” and therefore the birds “shriek.” What the folks lack in dialogue, the animals form up for in noise. The animal’s “speech” irritates Arun, inflicting him to additional dislike geographical region. The distinctive perspective and speech permits the reader to interact and perceive Arun’s awkwardness and disdain for the geographical region. It additionally enlightens to Arun that he’s content with the town, which he prefers to be civilized.
- Desai, Anita. ‘A Secret Connivance.’ TimesLiterarySupplement (14 September 1990): 972.
- Kakar, Sudhir. The Indian Psyche. By Sudhir Kakar. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1998.