Malaria is kind of infectious disease that affects humans and other animals. It cause by a kind of parasite that transmitted to people through one bite of the female anopheles mosquitoes. Malaria leads to 600,000 deaths globally each year, malaria is mostly found in sub-Saharan Africa. 90% of deaths occur in Sub-Saharan Africa mainly children under 5 years old (Dove press, 2016).According to WHO (world health organization) In 2017, 219 million people infected to malaria and 435000 people dead worldwide from malaria, approximately 99.7% of estimated malaria cases at Africa, Southeast Asia, the eastern Mediterranean, and western pacific( WHO 2019). Focus is the development of RTS’S vaccine (it is the first vaccine for protection against malaria) that improving of vaccine has on going since 1960. RTS is first vaccine for malaria Scientist begin research through targeting discovery of antigens, and suggesting AMA1 protein. The SHE concept of this article is development.
Malaria occur by single organism celled protozoan parasite of the genus plasmodium. It has four species that infect human by entering through bloodstream, Plasmodium falciparum (main cause of clinical malaria and death), plasmodium vivax, plasmodium ovale, and plasmodium malaria. Through one bite of infected mosquito, by movement of blood parasite goes to liver and multiply exponentially, and by a bite of another mosquito it continue the same cycle.
People who get malaria the symptoms they experience is fever, shaking chills, headache, muscle aches, and tiredness, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhoea may also occur. Because of the losing of red blood cells the colour of skin and eye is getting colour less or yellow colour. It also cause failure, seizures, mental confusion, coma and even death. For most people the symptoms of the malaria begin in 10 day also people feel early in 7 days or late as 1 year later.
According to research, scientists’ focus is development of malaria vaccine against the parasite’s proerythrocytic stage (the time which the organism inter to the person’s blood and goes to the liver, where it grows and continues the reproduction process.) the most challenge that malaria vaccine scientist face is weak immune system that can’t protect against the parasitic disease. Because the malaria parasite is so complex, scientists are following a variety of vaccine development methods. Now a day’s malaria vaccinologists are looking for new ways to develop vaccines. The vaccine candidates discover a various antigens against the life cycle of the malaria parasites, and describe in three stage: the pre-erythrocytic stage, the blood stage, and the transmission stage. They focused on the pre-erythrocytic stage (when the malaria parasite inter and replicate in the liver and cycle by the mosquito). The development of the RTS, S malaria vaccine is a long proses with challenging of funding, difficulty in identifying malaria antigens that is relating with the protection and development of adjuvant system among others (Dove press, 2019).
According to FIGO (international federation of gynaecology and obstetrics) it has been suggested that malaria vaccine could well improve by focusing on the AMA1 antigen. This protein required by the plasmodium falciparum (Sheetij Dutta 2014).
Researchers at the University of Arizona discovered a protein that’s for female mosquito which can destroy the embryos of to their young to hatch, when scientist inject the protein to the female mosquito they laid a defective egg within which the embryos is dead. The researcher said the production of targeted protein drugs, could provide a way to decrease mosquito (witch cause disease) population without harming beneficial insects like bees. Also Roger Miesfeld, head of the university said “it’s an important discovery, it has a much better chance of being bio-safe”.
To control malaria and eliminate malarial deaths, WHO advanced the global technical strategy for malaria 2016-2030. Provides technical framework for all endemic countries as they work towards malaria control and elimination. It also recommends artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) treatment against uncomplicated malaria.
Everyone can get malaria but as research shows malaria impact countries which is malaria transmission and poor countries, which has tropical weathers, countries which doesn’t have a life expectancy or can’t access to advance treatment health care for example African countries are the most effected countries. Thus poverty is not just related to income but also it is lack of health education, low skills, insecurity and more issues that poor countries face through their health. An estimation shows 70% of poor countries are women. Also pregnant women’s who has malaria transit to her children before or during delivery. And the nest group of people who get malaria is children’s under 5 years old because their immune system is weaker then young people, malaria cause mostly deaths for children’s who infected to this disease.
Over all Malaria cause by one kind of parasite that transmit through people by a bite of anopheles mosquito. Scientist are focusing to develop vaccine against malaria. And the SHE concept of malaria is development. And how scientist advance vaccine that have benefits for the poor countries and countries which is malaria transmission, a more robust or hardly vaccine that last longer in humidity and heat, can be better suited to travel to more remote places, this allows a more equitable and fair treatment to be administered.