A genome is a segment of DNA that provide the instruction for making specific proteins, which contains the information of a person’s body. A genome information is needed to maintain and build the organism throughout the life. It’s impacts are shown through a person’s hair, eyes, skin, and more. Additionally, the more principle role of the genome is it can influence a person’s risk of developing diseases and responses to medications. The half of the genome comes from a biological mother, and half of the genome comes from a biological father of a person.
What is Human Genome Project?
The Human Genome Project (HGP) is the international research to identify and understand all genome sequences in the human body, also mapping the human genome according to the information of sequences. The HGP started in the 1990s and ended in 2003s, which is along with the 13years effort. At first, it was planned for 15 years, but it could finish earlier caused by the development of scientific biological technologies. For example, in 1953 James Watson discover the double helix structure of DNA, and it helped to speed up the project. The HGP is important because it allows the development of medical skills for the treatment of genetic diseases through personalized genetic information according to the genome sequences. If all sequences of the genome are refined categorization, genetic diseases such as cancer, muscular dystrophy, and more will be able to treat via genetic editing, or helps to process of discovery for treatment.
What is goal of this project?
The major goals of the Human Genome Project is to determine the sequences of the estimated 3 billion DNA nucleotides base pairs; moreover, mapping the genome sequences after identifying the estimated 20,000 to 25,000 human genomes. The goal of HGP can help to develop the medical skills to treat the genetic diseases through discover the function of unknown genome, and identify the all genome database.
What did this project accomplish?
The HGP was complete in 2003s, it identified the all genome sequence and mapping the functional roles of the genome. The HGP research lead to better medical management and discover of diseases such as heart disease, cancer, and diabetes. It look more into fundamental causes of the disease through the genome research source rather than the treatment of symptom.
It accomplished great work to make the map of the genome, but it requires more deep analysis; because it requires more deep analysis because it emerged question towards ‘is HGP information is able to truly functions in biochemical active’.
The ELSI is the abbreviation of Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications program. The ELSI program focused on four possible outcomes during the genome research. The first one is privacy and fairness for using genomic information. Privacy is an important part of research because genome information could be used by unfair means. The second one is the integration of new genetic technology into the practice of clinical medicine. The third one is related to the ethical issue of the conduct of genetic information and the process of informed consent. The last one provides the education, professionals, policymakers for the complex issues about genetic research.