The Types Of Genetic Modifications

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Genetic engineering or what is also called recombinant DNA technology is the process of using diverse biotechnology to change an organism’s genome. Gene technology means transferring genes to an organism to create a new and improved version. There are two very different types of genetic modifications; somatic genetic modification and germline genetic modification.

Somatic genetic modification adds, cuts or changes the genes in some cells of an organism while germline genetic modification would change the genes in eggs, sperm or early embryos. The resulting organism is called a transgenic or genetically modified organism, or GMO and is usually modified after adaption to the environment.

The process of Genetic engineering can be explained in three basic steps that are 1) The isolation of DNA fragments from a donor organism 2) The insertion of an isolated donor DNA fragment into a vector genome and 3) The growth of a recombinant vector in an appropriate host.

The genetic engineering in animals have increased significally over the years and is mainly used to make farm animals grow faster and have healthier meat and flesh. Genetically engineered animals have also helped several medical advancements to find cures for genetic diseases and help humans stay healthy.

Animals that are used to help us often have their DNA altered to make them more similar to humans. By doing this they can be used as models so that scientists can see how diseases advance and how medications work. Genetically engineered animals are also used to grow cells, tissues and organs that can be transplanted into humans that need the part. (

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Genetic engineering in animals can be both good and bad. It allows for the elimination of diseases in both animals and humans, thus saving several lives. It can detect and cure conditions before the animal is even born making all animals born to be stronger and healthier. But even though scientists know much about the animal they still don’t know everything. We still don’t know if it is entirely safe behind modifying animals because there could be many risks that we are unaware of, who knows scientists could end up creating a much more dangerous diseases. (

Genetic engineering in humans is also being performed for the same reason as the animal ones. Genetic engineering in humans is performed to cure diseases before birth or even after saving several lives and making humans healthier. But genetic engineering has started to be performed to change looks and abilities. Genetic engineering in humans is used to change the genes in humans after our requirements, for example if we want our babies to have blue eyes or brown hair. There are two different types of genetic modifications that can be used; somatic genetic modification, which adds, cuts or changes the genes in some cells and germline genetic modification that changes the genes in eggs, sperms or early embryos. (

Genetic engineering in humans can be good because it get rids of all illnesses in young and unborn children. There are problems that scientist can detect before the children are born and cure them making the child healthy. Human modification could also increase our lifespan even more and possibly help us adapt to the crisis in the world, such as global warming. But are making changes at the cellular level entirely safe? That’s one thing scientist do not yet know. We may be able to wipe out one disease and make changes to our looks by modifying humans but may also introduce something new and more dangerous diseases. (

Genetic modification has also been used on crops to develop them by making changes to their DNA. Modifications are mainly made to agricultural crops and the goal is to introduce new traits, which does not occur naturally in the crop. Scientist often seek traits that make the crops mature faster and tolerate drought, frost and other environmental stressors, this allows the plants to grow in conditions where they usually would not. Edible vaccines produced from genetic modifications in plants are also under development. Once we absorb this plant with the vaccine into the bloodstream the protein stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies against the illness.

Modification in crops provides an inexpensive, safe and painless way to create vaccines, which are good because insulin for example was made from animals, but know that we have developed GM crops we can get insulin this way. This way of providing vaccines is a better way for the environment. GM crops are also good for our agriculture because crops develop creating more amounts making the sales of them cheaper. Modification in crops is overall just providing pros for us. But there is one big debate regarding GMO crops. Because this research is rather new we do not know a lot about it and it long-terms effects and safety. We do not know if it is entirely safe for us humans to consume these crops and a lot of people are discussing this.

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The Types Of Genetic Modifications. (2022, February 18). Edubirdie. Retrieved May 20, 2024, from
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