Food stalls in university been a trend nowadays, university not just put up a school canteen but also provide a variety of food to choose from which is the Food stalls or Food Court. All university in the Philippines you can see food court inside the campus. Students. Students enjoy to eat what they want and eat depends on their taste. They can choose from among the fifteen stalls in the food court. Students aren't given many alternatives when choosing the time of the day they would like to eat their meals because of a busy or tight schedule, they also not given the chance to eat the food they want or even to choose a bright atmosphere. That’s why university campus now a days outsource the food company to be able to cater the students want and need but it tends to be they are not giving it out properly or even studied it well how the process will be.
Total Quality Management (TQM) is known as the overall management of quality of the product starting from suppliers to end users known as customers. Quality management deals with the processes, products, services and initiates the innovations in the company to satisfy the customers. Quality management is concern for producing high quality of the products. Many manufacturing firms that have tried and become successful and others failed. Nokia, Toyota and Honda have implemented TQM. Organization has to implement the concept of TQM to achieve a zero defects product. The principles of TQM philosophy would really help the company once they implemented the strategy because TQM support the business improvement’s like cost reduction, enhanced productivity and improved the quality of the product. Successful companies have adopted TQM strategy.
Background of the Study
Total quality management (TQM) is a structured approach to overall organizational management. The focus of the process is to improve the quality of an organization's outputs, including goods and services, through continual improvement of internal practices. The standards set as part of the TQM approach can reflect both internal priorities and any industry standards currently in place. TQM focuses on ensuring that internal guidelines and process standards reduce errors, while Six Sigma looks to reduce defects.
TQM is considered a customer-focused process and aims for continual improvement of business operations. It strives to ensure all associated employees work toward the common goals of improving product or service quality, as well as improving the procedures that are in place for production.
San Beda University is a newly acquired university located in Mendiola. San Beda University has approximately 15,000 population including the students from College of Art and Sciences, Medicine, Nursing, Senior High School and College of Law. With this population San Beda has only three food areas student can eat at, Dom, Snack Bar and Fior. Snack Bar consist of different food company that has a lot of food to offer. Snack Bar has Pizza Hut, Wendy’s, I Love Milk Tea , Jamaican, Belgian Waffle, Tender Juicy Hotdog, Pasta Galore, Donuts, Chicks To Go, Potato Corner, Dimsum, Turks and Nacho King. With all food stalls they have the ventilation is not good. Facilities is not okay.
Statement of the problem
How can Total Quality Management help improve San Beda University Snack Bar to achieve satisfaction from customers?
Figure 1: Stages of TQM Development
A hierarchical process of quality includes the development of inspection through to quality control, within the context of systems of quality assurance under the wider management approach of total quality management (Das Mulm, 2009). Oakland (1993) defines total quality management as 'an approach to improving the competitiveness, effectiveness and flexibility of a whole organisation'.
According to Ali, Tuladhar, Zevenbergen, and Bhatti, Inspection is the comparison of the characteristics of the final product or service to the technical specifications. This will mostly concern with the operational level where most of the products or services delivered at the users’ end. Quality Control (QC) follows inspection and is the total of operational and technical procedures which can confirm the quality of a product or service according to specifications. From LAS point of view, it will focus on both the institutional and technical problems and issues at management level so that the quality of the product or service can be measured at this stage. Quality Assurance (QA) is the total of pre-programmed or systematic actions and procedures necessary for ensuring that a product or service fulfils and will continue to fulfil certain specifications. In LAS, this plays an important role at the policy level where a set of rules and regulation must be defined to ensure the quality of the product or service. Total Quality Management (TQM) is the total of activities and methods used by an enterprise in order to fulfil the requirements of a client with the least cost, emphasis given on the link between TQM and QA. For LAS, it is most important to develop TQM concept at regular basis so that new advancements in technology and customers’ needs analysis could be brought into consideration for improving the quality of existing system.
Independent Variable Dependent Variable
SBU Manila Students
Basis on the Implementation of the TQM
Figure 2: Variables that may affect Snack Bar
The diagram illustrates the independent variable that contains two context namely Business and Food Stall that depend on the SBU Manila students and Professors. That consist the attributes preferred and skills preference with intervening variable the basis on the implementation of TQM.
San Beda University Snack Bar will gain more profit and will have a high quality product if they implement TQM.
Significance of the Study
The key to development is through the implementation of Total Quality Management (TQM) in the industry, San Beda University Snack Bar. Wherein the new system will help to improve the quality of product and service of the Snack Bar.
To the San Beda University Snack Bar, the output of this study will give them a background and help them to implement the TQM strategy to help them gain profits.
To the Students, this research will help customers become more attentive to what product quality they must receive.
Scope and Delimitations of the Study
This study will be focusing on implementing the TQM strategy in the San Beda University Snack Bar. The area of this study is to provide solutions and improvements to the business quality product and services. The limit of this study is to gather possible data in the San Beda University Snack Bar.
Definition of Terms
- Implementation- the process of putting a decision or plan into effect
- Process- a series of actions or steps taken in order to achieve a particular end.
- Product- an article or substance that is manufactured or refined for sale.
- Quality- the standard of something as measured against other things of a similar kind; the degree of excellence of something.
- Satisfaction- fulfillment of one's wishes, expectations, or needs, or the pleasure derived from this.
- Service- A valuable action, deed, or effort performed to satisfy a need or to fulfill a demand.
- Student- A person formally engaged in learning, especially one enrolled in a school or college.
- Total Quality Management- Total quality management (TQM) is the continual process of detecting and reducing or eliminating errors in manufacturing, streamlining supply chain management, improving the customer experience, and ensuring that employees are up to speed with training. Established stores nationwide in the U.S.
Review of Related Literature and Studies
This chapter mainly encompasses the related literature both foreign and local researchers and studies from foreign researchers which have significant relevance on the variables comprised in the study.
TQM stresses a commitment by management to have a continuing companywide drive toward excellence in all aspects of products and services that are important to the customer, each of the 10 decisions made by operations managers deals with some aspect of identifying and meeting customer expectations and meeting those expectations requires an emphasis on TQM if a firm is to compete as a leader in world markets. (Heizer 2017)
In Pakistan, Textile Manufacturing Industry found out TQM and implemented TQM that lead them to success, they largely focused on achieving high quality product and application of some techniques. They also able to focus and invest in training of their employees and staff which leads to improvement. They also advocated the need for cost-effective framework to implement be able to implement TQM in business. After all, the business took place ISO 9000 certification. (Pau 2017)
This article is related to the researcher study as it focuses on how different countries implement TQM strategy.
Critical success factors (CSFs) in total quality management (TQM) implementation are vital to the quality improvement of organizations, including higher education institutions (HEIs). The present study aims to attempt to develop a TQM paradigm contextualized to HEIs in the Philippine setting. The study was focused on determining the CSFs in the TQM implementation of Philippine HEIs. Findings of this study may be used by HEIs as basis for planning, decision-making and in directing their strategies and resources in the integration of the paradigm in their business process. The proposed TQM paradigm, upon adoption by Philippine HEIs, may be used as a quality measurement tool to improve performance, embed and sustain quality culture. (Rodriguez 2017)
Philosophers like Deming, Juran, Crosby, Feigenbaum, Ishikawa and Taguchi contributed in TQM. Deming insisted management accept responsibility for building good systems. Deming outlined his philosophy on quality in his famous “14 Points.” These points are principles that help guide companies in achieving quality improvement. The principles are founded on the idea that upper management must develop a commitment to quality and provide a system to support this commitment that involves all employees and suppliers. Deming stressed that quality improvements cannot happen without organizational change that comes from upper management. (ibid).
Dr. Joseph Juran defined quality as “Fitness for Use”. A high quality product does what its customers want in such a way that they actually use the product. Juran introduced The juran Trilogy Diagram that includes; the first part is Quality Planning that is preparing to meet quality goals, Quality Control is meeting the quality goals during process or operations and Quality Improvement that is a Breakthrough Sequence, quality improvements should be continuous as well as breakthrough.
Armand V. Feigenbaum viewed quality as a strategic business tool that requires involvement from everyone in the organization. He outlined his quality in 3 steps. He also promoted the use of quality costs as a measurement and evaluation tool. Management and employees have a total commitment to improve quality, and people learn from each other’s successes (ibid).
Phillip B. Crosby developed the phrase “Do it right the first time” and the notion of zero defects, arguing that no amount of defects should be considered acceptable. He scorned the idea that a small number of defects is a normal part of the operating process because systems and workers are imperfect. Instead, he stressed the idea of prevention. Concentrating on preventing defects rather than just finding and fixing them.
Kaoru Ishikawa is best known for cause-and-effect diagrams, also called fishbone or Ishikawa diagrams. He emphasize the importance of the “internal customer’’. Dr. Ishikawa believed that everyone in the company needed to be united with a shared vision and a common goal. He stressed that quality initiatives should be pursued at every level of the organization and that all employees should be involved (ibid).
Dr. Genichi Taguchi is a Japanese quality expert known for his work in the area of product design. He estimates that as much as 80 percent of all defective items are caused by poor product design. Taguchi stresses that companies should focus their quality efforts on the design stage, as it is much cheaper and easier to make changes during the product design stage than later during the production process. Taguchi is known for applying a concept called design of experiment to product design, an engineering approach that is based on developing robust design, a design that results in products that can perform over a wide range of conditions. With everincreasing competition and consumer expectations, professionals and business managers cannot ignore quality issues and expect to maintain or improve their competitive position. Quality systems, time and again, have been responsible for substantial increases in the bottom line of businesses in every industry and have given organizations the boost they need to meet overall goals and objectives (ibid).
As observed from the iterated literature from various researcher, it shows to a large extent the success rate of implementation of TQM in an organization specifically Food Stalls. The variables of the study was strengthened through the presentation of the literature studies from both foreign and local resources.
The study is designed to know the results of the implementation of TQM in San Beda University Snack Bar. The purpose of this study is to know how it can be successful if they implement TQM to solve their problems especially in their process.
Method of Research
This study used the Qualitative Research Method in addressing the problem statement. The methodology involved the answered questions by different college students. It involved the different perceptions and insights of the student regarding the Food Stalls in their University.
The study was designed to gain an understanding of these variations in the interpretation of food. Stalls process in different university. The study will be used as a basis on how to implement Total Quality Management in San Beda University Snack Bar. The research questions for this study centered on the perspective of students regarding food stalls that will satisfy their wants as a students, qualitative methods were most appropriate.
Respondents and Sampling Design
The Study will focus on gathering data from different students from different University here in Manila. It will focus from the students from Centro Escolar University, University of Santo Tomas and San Beda University Manila. Each insight will be gathered and the researcher will analyze if the result of the gathering of information is applicable and can apply to San Beda University.
Data Gathering Instrument
The researcher used an interview type questionnaire to gather data from students. The researcher will provide the questionnaire that depends on how the respondent want, other students have it in Online and other students made it personal interview. The questions prepared will be based in the problem statement to be able to find solutions and answers regarding the problem. The questionnaire consists of five questions regarding their insights and wants regarding food stalls.
The questionnaire was developed in order to identify potential participants. The responses of the participants’ provided insight as to who met the criteria satisfying their wants in terms of Food Stalls, and if they need improvement and how to address with it. For this study, College Students mostly freshmen and senior 18 to 22 years of age, will be interviewed.
Data Gathering Procedure
The researcher will be using a Descriptive type of research to be able to gather data from different students in the Universities and to address the implementation of TQM in San Beda University Snack Bar. To be able to know the answers regarding the food stalls in different universities, the researcher will provide a questionnaire with five questions to answer the problem. The researcher will provide a copy of the questionnaire answered by the respondent to ensure the validity of the answers. The researcher will explain about the study and provide information and data to be able to them to answer correctly on what make them satisfy in their Food Stalls in University.
Data Analysis and Interpretation
To be able to know a possible solutions addressing the problems in San Beda University Snack Bar, questionnaire will be distributed to the respondents. Specific answer must be provided by the respondents. To be able to solve problems in Snack Bar.
Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data
The results of the analysis of the interview and questionnaire data will be presented in this chapter. This chapter also provide information given by Dheanielle Sarmiento from Centro Escolar University Manila, Charmane Manlangit a transferee student from University of Santo Tomas and Celine Faith Dalapo from San Beda University Manila regarding food stalls in their Universities.
According to Danielle Sarmiento a Fourth Year Student in Centro Escolar University Manila, their Food Stalls provide Potato Corner, Shawarma and others. The price of the food in their stalls is affordable. The space management in the food stalls is also spacious that let them roam around the food stalls and the workers are able to work properly, especially in cleaning the area and giving deliveries is accessible because the space allotted in between the table is right and well properly allocated. According to Dheanielle the Bad side of their Food Stalls is the Ventilation, the smell of the food stall will stay in their hair when they go out the Food Stall Area.
According to Charmane Manlangit a transferee Student from University of Santo Tomas. In providing food in the University is well allocated. UST Food Stalls provided variety of choices, KFC, Pancake House, Starbucks, Krispy Kreme, Subway, Bonchon, Tokyo-Tokyo and others. With the choices of food restaurant provided by the UST to student, according to Charmane they are really satisfied as they do not need to go out the campus just to satisfy the cravings. In terms of Space management of the restaurants inside the university, they are able to accommodate students. They provide a right space each restaurant depending on the business how big they want to rent. Each company or business is provided at least 20 sqm to be able to cater students in UST and proper Ventilation is provided.
According to Faith Dalapo a Fourth Year Operations Management Student in San Beda University Manila. San Beda University offers Snack Bar that includes Turks, Pizza Hut, Wendy's, I love Milktea, Belgian Waffle, Tender Juicy Hotdog, Happy Swirls, Potato Corner and others. They can provide a variety of food. But in space management, they cannot accommodate specially if lunch time because of Senior High School Student in the University. It is crowded that the Snack Bar can only accommodate estimated 50 persons. And the Ventilation is not good. If you go to Snack Bar and stay up to 30-60 minutes, when you go out you will smell like a snack bar. The smell will stay especially in your hair. That's why students preferred to ate lunch in Dom or outside the campus. The snack bar also don't provide a water fountain, students will go to Dom to get water.
With this information provided by the respondents, the researchers concluded that implementing TQM in San Beda University will help a lot to gain more profit and attract more customers.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
This chapter is divided into three parts. The first part is the summary, the second part is the findings, and last part is the conclusions and recommendations. It is taken from the information gathered that lead to this result results of the information gathered.
This study aimed to implement total Quality Management in San Beda University Snack Bar. And improvement regarding San Beda University Snack Bar to provide satisfaction from the students and professors. It sought to answer the question: How can Total Quality Management help improve San Beda University Snack Bar to achieve satisfaction from customers.
The importance of the study is to be able to address the problems facing by the San Beda University Snack Bar given its space and facilities management. How Total Quality Management will help to provide solutions and ways to the problem stated. It will focus on what the student wants and to be able to satisfy them in Snack Bar. The researcher conducted an interview of students regarding Total Quality Management and their own food stalls.
The given data were analyzed and formulated given under the statement of the problem:
- The researcher found out that college students in universities wants variety of choices in terms of food.
- The researcher found out that implementation of TQM will have a big improvement in Snack Bar.
- The researcher found out that Snack Bar must have a proper ventilation.
If TQM is implemented, specifically the Crosby Theory: Zero Defects, will help Snack Bar to improve to fully satisfy Students. Zero Defects Theory will help the Snack Bar to become basis. Improving the Food Stalls Ventilation can have a great impact to attract students to stay inside the campus. According to Crosby, it is better to make it right in the first time than finding solutions with it.
This provides some recommendations to the future Researchers.
- This study can be conducted using different methods such as focused group discussion and a survey type questionnaire.
- The study was conducted from the students of San Beda, CEU and UST therefore, results may vary when the researcher will not limit their respondents and have a broad respondents or from many universities.
- The study can have respondents’ not just students but researcher can consider the Faculty and Staff as well to have a great result.
- Evans, J. R., & Lindsay, W. M. (2012). Understanding total quality management. Singapore: Cengage Learning Asia Pte
- Render, B., Heizer, J., & Munson, C. (2017). Operations management: Sustainability and supply chain management. Boston: Pearson
- Barone, A. (2019, June 25). How Total Quality Management (TQM) Works. Retrieved from https://www.investopedia.com/terms/t/total-quality-management-tqm.asp
- Entrepreneur Philippines. “Local Garments Factory Offers Quality Clothing, Income Opportunities.” Entrepreneur.com.ph, Entrepreneur Philippines, www.entrepreneur.com.ph/business-ideas/local-garments-factory-offers-quality-clothing-income-opportunities.
- EVOLUTION OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT, www.rusnauka.com/2_ANR_2016/Economics/14_206421.doc.htm.
- Janette Rodriguez, Madonna Valenzuela, Nunilon Ayuyao, (2018) 'TQM paradigm for higher education in the Philippines', Quality Assurance in Education, Vol. 26 Issue: 1, pp.101-114, https://doi.org/10.1108/QAE-12-2015-0048
- (n.d.) Retrieved July 10, 2019, from https://libguides.bc.edu/edpaper/sections