Benefits That CPR Has on Cardiac Arrest: Critical Analysis

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In this critique, I will be covering the benefits that CPR has on cardiac Arrest, this will be accomplished by studying research that investigates the effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation on patients (Kaplow. R. et al. 2021). I specifically chose to exert this research as it is linked to my chosen topic (CPR). It is also related to my previous work experience in an emergency room, where I witnessed cardiac arrest as a dialysis complication. An empirical study of IHCAs was performed in a single experimental accredited university in the Southeast from September 6, 2016, to December 19, 2018. The experiment was performed by a group of set direction by Kaplow in 2016 to see what impact CPR accuracy and compliance with long-term established protocols have on in-hospital patients, age range from 18 to 98 years old were included in the report. (Kaplow. R. et. al 2021).

A systematic search of the literature was conducted to find appropriate reading. Utilising a well-known E-database CINAHL complete and medicine Full Text (May and Holmes, 2012). In advance search using a keyword; Cardiac Arrest, Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, CPR and Resuscitation. A text filter by using Boolean operator ‘AND' for the words, guidelines or protocols as well as practice guideline or clinical practice guideline plus recommendation, In-hospital cardiac arrest, and patients’ outcomes were used to narrow down the search to papers that combined words with an expander of related topics to find those that were contextually identical. To find complete texts among the most recent studies: full text, year limiters, and English language were used.

The title accurately depicts the study subject, emphasising the recommendations for life support and patient outcomes to entice readers to see if the research is applicable to their experience (Parahoo, 1997). The title also contains key points from the article that enable the listener to make an educated decision without having to read lengthy quantities of material.

The thesis was conducted to determine the cause of death from heart disease all over the world. The abstract outlines the study's main purpose, approach, conclusions, summary, and keywords in brief. The study's goals were straightforward, and the goal was to see whether there was a connection between in-hospital cardiac arrest clinical results and two independent variables: resuscitation procedure compliance and patient seriousness of symptoms, as determined by the number of organs supporting procedures used before cardiac arrest.

Data from a convenience sample that was collected prospectively was used in a quantitative study. Types and medical records linked to cardiopulmonary arrest were checked at a university hospital. The RescueNet Code Review software was used to evaluate compliance with resuscitation orders by using the ZOLL R Series console or defibrillator. In 200 cases, 37% of compressions were performed within the recommended rate range and 63.9%were performed within the recommended depth range. Just 125 (62.5%) of the 200 patients regained normal circulation. After 24 hours, only 94 patients (47%) were still alive. When they were released from the ICU, only 50 people (25%) were alive. (Kaplow. R. et. al 2021).

The significance of this analysis is contextualised in the research report, which discusses how high-quality CPR improves patient outcomes. In-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) is one of the major causes of death in hospitals. An approximate 209,000 people die in hospital from heart disease in the United States each year (Hazinski MF, 2015). This research aimed to see if there was a correlation between following resuscitation procedures and treatment response, as well as a link between treatment outcomes and disease severity, as determined by the amount of organ supporting therapies used before heart failure. In a landmark report, only 63% of patients received the minimum dosage of CPR chest compressions (Abella BS, 2005). Two researchers (Roberta Kaplow and Ray Snider) reviewed CPR test findings and code documents to assess compliance with American Heart Association (AHA) and Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) protocols.

The investigator examined the pioneering study and discovered that only 63% of the patients received CPR compressions at the minimum dosage (Abella BS, 2005). According to another analysis, the depth of compressions was too shallow and erratic (Abella BS, 2005). This was an experimental analysis that used evidence from an appropriate sample that had been obtained ahead of time. Participants ranged in age from 18 to 98 years old and were tested in a single regional university hospital in the United States' south-eastern region. This review was based on the findings of the report. This article was based on the findings of the report. A more recent study of 272 hospitals conducted between 2007 and 2010 showed a 21.1% progress rate. Increased palliative care intervention, forward guidance, non-resuscitative protocols, and the use of formalised post-resuscitation instructions can also help to improve results (Chan PS, 2013).

In this quantitative research, there are 3 different methods used and clearly explained by the author they are as follows:

  • Respondents and design
  • Data collection
  • Analytical Statistics

Respondents and design: This was an empirical analysis that used information from a convenient survey that was gathered prospectively. In the South-eastern, they also looked at IHCAs in a single urban academic medical centre. Patients undergoing ventricular assist devices or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation treatment were not included in the study.

Cases that lacked main data elements were also ruled out. Since the thesis met the requirements outlined in government guidelines for waivers of written evidence, the hospital's study protocol waived the provision for informed consent (Chan PS, 2016, US (United States) Department of Health and Human Services, 2016).

Data Collection: Using the hospital's system, they were informed of all IHCAs. Since 2013, the ZOLL has been the defibrillator of choice on all inpatient units. Every year, all nurses and nurse practitioners are given a refresher course on pad positioning and system service. Two researchers (RS and RK) looked through all CPR examination results and protocols. The study participants were not blinded to the study objectives as they were part of the analysis squad.

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During CPR, an observation for the existence and duration of pauses were overseen. Compression rate and depth were used to measure adhesion. The seriousness of the participant's condition prior to CPR can be an indicator of resuscitation success (Roberts D, 2017). The research team created a data collection form that was used to assemble and document all of the information. All of the information was inserted into a Microsoft Excel workbook that was password-protected.

Analytical Statistics: Both demographic features, code variables, adherence to chest compression and survival evaluations were obtained with descriptive statistics. The tests of comparison between the survivors and the non-surfacers of each survival point were conducted for both demographic features and clinical measures. With a sample size of 200 individuals and a base chance survival rate of 30%, an impact size odds ratio of 1.57 was detected for every 1-unit increase in CPR compression compliance (Cohen J, 1988). The hospital's Resuscitation Committee tracked resuscitation results and came up with a 30% survival figure. We could detect a modest impact size correlation among percent compliance to CPR guidance and survival with a study population of 200 and an estimated success rate of 30% (lower-bound estimation based on latest information) (Faul F, 2007).

There are some drawbacks to this report. The accuracy of CPR data is dependent on the location of sensors during the process. It is possible that some employees did not follow the 2015 AHA guidelines' advice to use improved feedback technologies (Christenson J, 2009). Only bedridden patient care sections had access to code info. Children may have been included in the study, their support needs would have been different. There was no evidence that participants were safe from harm.

They found no connection between the number of pauses in compressions longer than 10 seconds and the code duration. Patients with longer codes are expected to have further pauses, and this relationship should be explored more in the future. The hospital's emergency response staff taught the basic care unit nurses how to properly position pads, which improved compression compliance. Recovered patients should have been monitored within 3-6 months, to detect any problem or health related issues that they may have developed after recovery.

The findings have been organised into four categories, each of which explicitly specifies the outcomes.

  • Characteristics of the Research Sample
  • Adherence to the Basic Life Support Guidelines
  • Information Coding
  • Data on the Results

Characteristics of the Research Sample: The median percentages of conformity to goal for compression depths during each code were: 1.4% above, 63.9% at, and 34.7% beneath. The programme requiring help ranged between 0 and 4, with 94 cases (47%) one or more (Kaplow. R. et. al 2021). The IHCA evenly divided between day (49 %) and night shift (51%). The majority of the participants (56%) were men. Initially, all of the participants are pulseless (58.5%), with little asystole (19.5%), ventricular tachycardia (11.5%), and ventricular fibrillation (10.5%). This report contains numerical observations.

Adherence to the Basic Life Support Guidelines: The ZOLL estimated that average compression conformity to CPR standards was 27.4% when a pace of 100 to 120 per minute was combined with a depth of at least 2 inches. The count of guidelines with at least 80% of their compressions at target depth and the rate was also counted. Just 13 codes (6.5%) had 80% upwards of the compressions at policy rates, compared to 79 codes (39.5%) that had 80% or more of the compressions at target depth.

Information Coding: 16 of the 200 participants were defibrillated incorrectly. More than 50% of the time, therapies were not provided according to AHA guidelines. This poor adherence rate, on the other hand, had no clinically relevant relationship with all recovery ends.

Data on the Results: A total of 125 of the 200 patients achieved ROSC, 94 individuals survived 24 hours following resuscitation, 50 got through ICU, and 47 were released alive from the centre. Two variables were found to be strongly linked to ROSC and ICU release. Patients undergoing more organ supporting therapy have a lower chance of surviving ICU release (Mann-Whitney Z = 2.26, P =.02)

The authors of this analysis wanted to see whether there was a connection with following resuscitation instructions and four different outcomes (ROSC, 24-hour survival, ICU discharge, and hospital discharge). Recovery was slightly higher in groups that spent 61% to 80% of their period in chest compressions relative to teams that spent 0% to 20% of their period in chest compressions, with a probability of 3.01 for recovery to discharge (Christenson and his associates). The basic fact is that the results were compared to other research conducted by other experts. Patients' demographic profiles were not correlated with higher recovery, according to the authors' own measures. Patients in the ICU were more critically sick than on general units, which may result in poorer success rates (Chan PS, 2013).

They discovered that patients in our sample had a higher recovery to discharge than those published in a research of 374 hospitals from 2000 to 2009 that looked at patterns in recovery after IHCA, with the authors reporting increased recovery over the past decade (Girotra S 2012).

Overall survival rates are close to those observed in previous research, according to these preliminary findings. The number of compressed breaks was the reliable factor in the success of IHCA. Capnography evaluation assures the chest compression supplier of its effectiveness. Patients with one or more organ systems supported at the time of IHCA were probably less likely to be recovered alive from the ICU, according to the report. The revised curriculum for teaching functional life care established by the AHA needs to be reviewed accordingly. As part of the Resuscitation Quality Improvement programme, quarterly CPR practice is permitted to improve professionalism (Panchal AR, 2019. And RQI Partners. RQI 2020).

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Benefits That CPR Has on Cardiac Arrest: Critical Analysis. (2022, December 27). Edubirdie. Retrieved April 17, 2024, from
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