Informative Essay on CPR as a Life-Saving Technique

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Directions: Use this worksheet as a guide to create your speech outline (The number of main points, sub-points, and support may vary according to your unique content). The final product needs to be typed, in 12-point Times New Roman font, double-spaced, have 1-inch margins, and include internal source citations (at least 1 per main point and 1 in the introduction) in APA formatting. Please retain the concept labels below. On a separate references page, all source citations should be listed in APA style.


  1. General Purpose: To Inform
  2. Specific Purpose: To inform my audience about the importance and process of cardiopulmonary-resuscitation
  3. Type of Informative Speech: Conceptual
  4. Central Idea: CPR is a life-saving technique; it has a function and process that is important to know about.


  1. Attention Getting Device: (Photo of Dwight Schrute from The Office, with a CPR manakin face). You’ve all probably seen this photo, and if you have, you probably have an idea of what my speech is about.
  2. Thesis: In 2013, According to Doctor Nishiyama, CPR can triple the chances of survival with bystander intervention. CPR is quite literally a life-saving skill to have, and the history as well as the functions and processes of CPR are extremely important to know and understand.
  3. Justification/Significance: I personally believe that CPR is a skill that you can and may have to use in everyday life. It is very relevant for you, and the other people around you.
  4. Preview of Main Points: To help you understand more about CPR, I want to talk about the history of CPR, its purpose, common mistakes, and how to actually perform CPR.

(Transition) First of all, the history of CPR.


  • I. Main Point (Major Claim): CPR has undergone many changes and reviews since its first-born concept.
    • A. Sub Point (Sub Claim). According to the 2018 American Heart Association, a renowned health organization with Dr. Berg, CPR started as early as the 1700s. beginning with breathing techniques on a coal miner that were successful and studied.
      • 1. Grounds. Beginning with breathing techniques on a coal miner that were successful and studied, Doctors then began experimenting on chickens, using instruments such as bellows to restore breathing and compressions. This prompted further experimentation when people realized that open-massaging the heart would increase circulation in the 1800s..
        • a. Warrant. After this period of testing basic ways to resuscitate, people began forming very simplistic methods for revival.
    • B. Sub Point (Sub Claim). It wasn’t until the late 1900s that we began to see something like the CPR we have today.
      • 1. Grounds. In 1960, doctors finally combined the use of compressions with mouth-to-mouth breathing and gave way to CPR. This method has been used, reviewed, and revised multiple times for efficiency.
        • a. Warrant. This goes to show that the history of CPR is constantly changing and continuing as we know it.
  • (Transition) The history of CPR is very interesting, but more importantly it leads into its function.
  • II. Main Point (Major Claim): We know that CPR works to bring someone back to life. But there are reasons why do we do it the way we do.
    • A. Sub Point (Sub Claim). Current CPR methods require that you give the patient two breaths in between compressions.
      • 1. Grounds. According to the Researcher R. Berg and associates in 2010 who studied American Heart Association CPR, it is important to not excessively ventilate, or give breaths, and to pair these breaths with chest compressions. This should be done with a mask, mouth to mouth contact is not recommended on strangers due to spread of diseases.
        • a. Warrant. Although breathing is not always possible, especially without a mask, it significantly helps the body to compensate.
    • B. Sub Point (Sub Claim). It is also important to give the patient thirty, solid chest compressions.
      • 1. Grounds. In essence, this gives the heart almost a “fake beat” which allows blood to still flow throughout the body. This lets cells, which are carrying oxygen from the breaths you gave, to flow to the brain and other areas of the body to prevent quick and excessive tissue death.
        • a. Warrant. It’s still not the same as having a working heart, it just helps to kickstart a dying heart back into motion.
  • (Transition) The function and purpose of CPR seems like a lot, and because it is so powerful, and lot of things can go wrong that you need to know about.

III. Main Point (Major Claim): If CPR is done incorrectly, it can do more harm than damage.

A. Sub Point (Sub Claim). Simply not knowing how to do CPR is a common occurrence, and an unfortunate one.

1. Grounds. According to research studies by in 2018 Fiona Dobbie and her team for Systematic Research, bystander CPR significantly increases the chance of survival. It also becomes significant if you have to perform CPR on a family member or loved one.

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a. Warrant. By knowing CPR, bystanders can have a significant effect on how emergency situations can turn out.

B. Sub Point (Sub Claim). People who have no experience with CPR but are kind of enough to help, may not be doing suffering people much of a favor.

1. Grounds. If the position of the hands is too low, a bone called the Xiphoid process breaks off of the sternum and can move around the inside of the body and stab vital organs. Their compressions may also be too soft and too few, which does not circulate enough blood throughout the body.

a. Warrant. This is why it is important to know the basics of CPR: to avoid mistakes and situations that could otherwise be handled correctly.

(Transition) Finally, I would like to give you some tips and instructions on how to perform basic CPR on adults.

IV. Main Point (Major Claim): CPR involves certain steps and tricks in order to be performed correctly.

  • A. Sub Point (Sub Claim). According to Dr. JJustad in 2013, early recognition is the most important part of CPR. There are a couple of steps that actually need to happen prior to beginning CPR: Making sure the scene is safe, assigning tasks for people to retrieve help, and checking the person for breathing or a pulse.
    • 1. Grounds. First, check to see if the scene is safe; if someone is hurt, there’s a chance you may get hurt too. After, see you if you can get the person to respond by tapping their shoulders. Check their pulse and their breathing, and if others are around you, ask them to get help or a first aid kit.
      • a. Warrant. Doing all of this not only helps you and the victim, but the medics who will be on their way.
  • B. Sub Point (Sub Claim). The following steps are the most important in keeping your patient alive.
    • 1. Grounds. The ratio of compressions to breathing is thirty compressions for every two breaths. When you breathe, make sure you cover their nose, make a firm seal around their mouth, and tilt their head back. For compressions, place your hands perpendicular to the sternum and parallel to the heart. You want to lace your fingers, keep your elbows straight and push about 2-3 inches into the chest and wait for recoil. There should be about 100 compressions in a minute that you accomplish.
      • a. Warrant. By following this method correctly from the American Heart Association, you could save someone’s life.


  1. Summarize Main Points: The history of CPR, its function, its difficulty, and its process is a lot for one person to handle; but knowing about each component is vital.
  2. Restate Thesis: You could end up saving someone’s life by knowing how to perform CPR and be able to tell someone why and how you do it.
  3. Close with Impact: So, my apologies, but I have now ruined any portrayal of people doing CPR in TV shows and movies, including the Office because you’ll know they’re doing it wrong.


  1. American Heart Association. (2018). History of CPR. CPR & First Aid Emergency Cardiovascular Care. Retrieved from
  2. Berg, RA et al. (2010). Adult basic life support. American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care, 124(15), 402
  3. Dobbie, F. (2018). Protocol for a systematic review to identify the barriers and facilitators to deliver bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in disadvantaged communities. Systematic Reviews, 143(7), 1-5.
  4. JJustad. (2013). The importance of CPR. Health Guidelines, 27(6), 1-2.
  5. Nishiyama, C. et al., (2013). Long-term retention of cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills after shortened chest compression-only training and conventional training: a randomized controlled trial. Society for Academic Emergency Medicine, 47-48.
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