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Blood Donation And Transfusion

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People around the world are in need of help and as a community or nation united, are the ones for the job. About two centuries ago, life expectancy was between 30 to 40 years of age and many human beings would not live for long because medicine was not truly practiced. The technology and advancements that the world has now makes the life expectancy to increase in years. The information given will be about the history of blood transfusions, procedures and risks that are involved, different blood types, and future advancements and changes that scientists and physicians have begun to experiment on. Blood is the thing that maintains lives throughout transfusions, but there are certain risks in this procedure to which are put to a test to provide safety within a person’s health.

Blood Transfusions have not been around since the beginnings of time. Medicine and procedures needed to advance in order for blood from a donor to be used for a person or patient in need of blood. In 1666, Richard Lower had completed a blood transfusion, but he was testing a blood transfusion on animals and not between human beings (Fastag et al). Later on in the next year, the transfusion between an animal and a human came to process by a French Physician named Jean Baptiste Denis, but it did not go through as the patient ended up dying from the procedure (McCann). Blood has several things involved that need to be examined thoroughly. Not only did transfusions stop, but also blood needed to be checked on components because it need to be checked and ready for the person receiving the blood into their system.

Blood is divided into four categories: red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and plasma. All of the components of the blood are different percentages of amount. The highest percentage of the blood is mostly made of erythrocytes ,also known as red blood cells, and they carry oxygen into the body as well as carrying carbon dioxide out of the body. Leukocytes ,otherwise known as white blood cells, are a lower percentage from erythrocytes and they help fight within the human body of bacteria and infections. Even though there is not a high amount of platelets in the blood, they are needed in order for the blood to be able to clot (Blood Transfusions). Plasma on the other hand is a higher percentage than red blood cells and it is a very important component to the blood because it allows for things to move and run smoothly throughout the body and not let anything get stuck (What is Plasma). All of the components that make up the blood are able to be donated separately or all together with a blood organization that will do the procedures necessary.

Blood transfusion from one person to another is a special procedure used by doctors in medical procedures that involve patients with the need of blood. The only authorized person that can allow a blood transfusion is if he or she is a health care provider (Getting a Blood Transfusion). The procedure of course can not be done by anyone that does not have possession of a medical degree where they are permitted legally to prescribe or give a blood transfusion to a patient. Blood transfusions are used for serious injuries, surgery, and when a person can’t make enough blood. Doctors use blood transfusions for surgeries where a patient could eventually lose blood during the medical procedure (Blood Transfusions: MedlinePlus). Thinking of a blood transfusion only being done at a hospital or clinic is one option. Another option would be of a nurse coming to the home of the person and completing the procedure checking on the patient as well as they would at a hospital and clinic (Getting a Blood Transfusion).

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Many risks are inherent to human life, especially if it is related to the health and life of a human being. Blood transfusions come with risks mostly because of the diseases, infections, and reactions that can be diagnosed on a patient. The instrument used to get the blood from a donor to a patient involves a catheter ,also known as a fine tube, that has a needle connected so that it can be placed into a vein to draw out the blood. Reactions that could happen during a blood transfusion which could happen immediately during the procedure or later on are very possible. Possible reactions are being allergic, getting a fever, having trouble breathing due to an illness, unmatching blood donations, or when a weak immune system is present (Getting a Blood Transfusion). Examples of infections and diseases that can be present after the procedure are Hepatitis viruses B and C, Human immunodeficiency virus (also known as HIV), Human T-lymphotropic viruses (also known as HTLV) I and II, Syphilis, West Nile virus, and/or Chagas disease (Blood Transfusions). For these risks to be rare and not become a problem when a health care provider is working through a blood transfusion procedure, the blood is tested in a laboratory before hand.

Blood is not one same component in its entirety for each human being on Earth. It was discovered by both Karl Landsteiner and Jan Jansky, the four different types of blood and Karl Landsteiner was given the most credit (McCann). Once blood transfusions became successful, “Blood banking really took off during the Second World War” (Anthes). Humans have A, B, O, or AB blood in the body. When it comes to a transfusion, the person giving the blood needs to match the patient receiving the blood or things could get very complicated (Blood Transfusions: MedlinePlus). Although there are four major known blood types, there is an Rh factor that makes it more unique because it could either be negative blood or positive blood (Getting a Blood Transfusion). Since each blood type involves an Rh factor, the total amount of blood types are eight because of four positive blood types and four negative blood types. If the blood type has the Rh positive factor passed down from the parents, then the blood type possibilities are A+, B+, O+, and AB+. When there is no Rh factor ,also considered Rh negative, found in the blood type, then the possibilities are A-, B-, O-, and AB- (Blood Types in Pregnancy).

Patients that receive blood from a donor could eventually be placed to a change in blood transfusions. It could be a possibility that “Synthetic or bioengineered cellular blood components show promise” (Seifried and Mueller). It should be noted, this future procedure of synthetic blood components will not be ready now and it could take many years for it to be processed and ready (Seifried and Mueller). At the moment the most common ways of getting blood is by blood drives and volunteers. Ways of donating blood could be by, a direct donation from a family member to the patient itself, an autologous donation where the patient donates blood for themselves when needed, or from a volunteer donor to the patient (Blood Transfusions).

In conclusion, a blood transfusion is a procedure that is done by a healthcare provider that knows what they are doing based off from the education taken to get approved. In the 17th century, blood was being experimented for blood transfusions, but it did not work out the way as planned. After, the procedure came back in use during the 20th century because of better knowledge for safety to the patients. The blood could be a complicated matter if it were to be transfused into different blood type people and this is because each blood type has a negative Rh factor or a positive Rh factor that distinguishes and can make a person repel the blood and become ill. Risks involved with the procedure are there, but based from tests taken to analyze the blood before hand, makes the person or patient have a safe and healthy body system. Blood is the thing that maintains lives throughout transfusions, but there are certain risks in this procedure to which are put to a test to provide safety within a person’s health.

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Blood Donation And Transfusion. (2021, September 23). Edubirdie. Retrieved October 7, 2022, from https://edubirdie.com/examples/blood-donation-and-transfusion/
“Blood Donation And Transfusion.” Edubirdie, 23 Sept. 2021, edubirdie.com/examples/blood-donation-and-transfusion/
Blood Donation And Transfusion. [online]. Available at: <https://edubirdie.com/examples/blood-donation-and-transfusion/> [Accessed 7 Oct. 2022].
Blood Donation And Transfusion [Internet]. Edubirdie. 2021 Sept 23 [cited 2022 Oct 7]. Available from: https://edubirdie.com/examples/blood-donation-and-transfusion/
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