Comparison of Transition and Consolidation in Venezuela and Brazil

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All Latin America political systems are presidential, which sometimes can mean this huge power can be exercised by one person, if unchecked can bring a huge problem to the country. This essay will be describing the transition and consolidation of Venezuela and Brazil, which happens to be in South America, also known as Latin America. To do so, this essay will rely on Samuel P. Huntington third wave transition and how the elite influences the transition and consolidation. The two countries share many features, for instance, both initiated their transition by regime reforms at the same time. With Venezuela leaning more to modernization theory, structure change regimes pushed towards transformation while relying heavily on social and economic structures. In contrast, Brazil transitional theory which brings the elite or political class to the realization some measure of liberalization most must be instituted, i.e. bringing the working class and ‘favela residents’ into the country’s economy. The two countries however have different struggle, this is how the two countries transition started.

Brazil transition started with a military dictatorship of Castello Branco administration 1964, which came in to power by a coup d’état, despite declaring respect for Brazil’s constitution and a firm commitment to maintaining democratic processes, Castelo Branco repeatedly violated the Constitution and progressively guided Brazil further away from representative democracy during his three years in the presidency. Fearing a return to populist leadership if the military observed democratic processes and allowed for direct elections, the shrewd general recognized public dissatisfaction with his economic leadership and circumvented the tenets of Brazil’s constitution to ensure that officials true to his vision for the nation remained in power. Brazil at time with low levels of education, incomplete industrialization and urbanization were not in the place for democracy to flourish.

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Venezuela in other hand, transition started with a dramatic economic growth with the oil boom, a petroleum induced structural transformation (Kart, T 1987). The twenty-seven years of rule of Cauldillo Juan Vicente Gomez, mostly overshadowed by the exploitation of Venezuelans resources by foreign multinationals company kept him in power. The United States of America seems to be catch in a formation of authoritarian arrangements, with an immense part of United State economy seem to be dependent oil. These arrangements enabled that Caudillo Juan Vicente Gomez could stay in power without any challenge. Gomez had this huge oil revenue which allowed him to equip his army, expand a loyal state of bureaucracy. With a total economy dependency on oil, Venezuelans neglected other industry such as: farming and manufacturing. One manifestation of this structural dynamic is the heavy reliant on imports, rather than for the domestic products. The oil induced decline of agriculture profoundly affected both the social structure and the political behavior of Venezuelans.

Western influence upon Venezuela and Brazil have been exercised in a wide variety of ways. These have ranged, historically, from the dramatic imposition of Spanish (Venezuela) and Portuguese (Brazil) rule during the conquest of the area in the sixteenth century, through the subsequent introduction of some phases of European culture during the colonial period, to the European immigration, influence of the United States, and Latin American participation in international affairs of more contemporary times.

Liberal political philosophy must be set out of general principles about liberty and the role of the state, and not simply as a collection of conclusion of limited generality and scope, accepted on all sorts of grounds and subjects to various condition and qualifications which may collide head- on with the principle they said to qualify.

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Comparison of Transition and Consolidation in Venezuela and Brazil. (2022, October 28). Edubirdie. Retrieved May 26, 2024, from
“Comparison of Transition and Consolidation in Venezuela and Brazil.” Edubirdie, 28 Oct. 2022,
Comparison of Transition and Consolidation in Venezuela and Brazil. [online]. Available at: <> [Accessed 26 May 2024].
Comparison of Transition and Consolidation in Venezuela and Brazil [Internet]. Edubirdie. 2022 Oct 28 [cited 2024 May 26]. Available from:

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