Communism refers to a system of social organization that encourage for classless and equal community in which all wealth and property is communally owned instead of by individuals or private corporation. In summary, communism is the view that every person in a certain community is treated and receives equal portion of the benefits derived. Communism is structured to enable low-income people to prosper and achieve financial and social status equally to that of the middle-class people. Equality is attained by redistribution of wealth hence the upper-class communities are brought down to the same financial and social level as the middle class. In communism, it is required that all means of production are controlled by governments which means the state acts as a monopoly. Simply say, no individuals able to have his or her own business and production system since the governments control and obtain everything. In communist view, people will do the work that they like and do well. They would gladly contribute those skills for the sake of all. By doing so, the economy would prosper, since people do something that they enjoy and would work harder than before. In addition, the community would take care of minority who are not able to work and share things to anybody who needs them, so those who work should be driven by enlightened self-interest.
Contemporary communist philosophy first emerged during the French Revolution by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels spreading through ‘The Communist Manifesto’ was published back in 1848. The ideology denied the Christian objective of preceding communist philosophies, laying out a materialist and – its proponents claim – scientific analysis of the history and future trajectory of human society. ‘The Communist Manifesto’ marked the French Revolution as a substantial historical turning point. Back then, during capitalist era, the merchant community in the process of strengthening the control over production structure was overthrown and ushered by the feudal opposition. That revolution wiped out the middle-class struggle, which pitted the upper class against the lower class, in simple term, merchant community of capital against working class who provide their labor for wages. In ‘The Communist Manifesto’ and more recent works, Marx, Engels and the followers empowered a global revolution, and the final phase of human development would mark the end of class opposition and therefore in history stated that people would live in social equality, without class distinctions, family structures, religion or property. The community would function from each according to each ability, to each according to his needs.
Theoretically, there are several advantages that can be obtained through a communist society. Communism promotes the spread of global welfare through the development of public health and education, provision of childcare, public social services and welfare benefits. With those improvements in social welfare, theoretically will indirectly boost labor productivity and develop a better society.
Additionally, communism allows for employment opportunities to be given out to everyone. Because government owns all means of production, they can provide jobs for at least a majority of the people therefore it is normal that people are always entitled to jobs. Every citizen in a communist country is given sufficient work opportunities to live and survive. However, everyone must do his or her part for the economy to receive pay and other work benefits. If the citizens prefer not to work, then they have to support the community with some other method. State-controlled communism manages to avoid such matter by forcing every person do a job with threats of dominating governor. As everyone has a same portion and standing in the production process, there are less problem with hierarchy and classism in every industry.
One of the main advantages of communist ideology is the centrally planned economy. Since the state has the full control and acts as monopoly, it can rapidly mobilize resources on a large -scale, perform wide-scale projects, and build industrial power. The system can be executed so efficiently because it rules out personal self-interest and subjugates the welfare of majority of population to realize acute social goals.
In conclusion, despite the apparently conflicting views on communism that have developed over the course of history, and in contrast to all the critics who condemn the significance of this ideology, it can still be argued that it is good. Like any ideology, its correct and reasonable implementation is important.