The National Policy on Education was introduced in 1992. The government of India had started providing education compulsorily. As per review of literature, PM Modi started various programs and policies. The policy aims to universalize pre-primary education by 2025. All the sources are collected from secondary data.
Key words: National Education Policy, New Education Policy, Indian Education System
The National Policy on Education was framed in 1986 and modified in 1992. Since after that some changes have taken place that for a modification of the Policy. The Government of India would like to bring out a National Education Policy to meet the changing dynamics of the population’s necessity with regards to quality education, innovation and research, aiming to make India a knowledge superpower by students with the necessary skills and knowledge and to put an end to the shortage of manpower in science, technology, academics and industry.
According to the National Policy on Education-1968, the government of India had formulated certain principles to promote the development of education in the country.
These principles are:
• Free and Compulsory Education:
According to Article- 45 (Indian Constitution), education should be free and compulsory up to the age of 14. Steps should be taken to make sure that a child who is enrol in the school should successfully complete the course.
• Education of Teachers:
The teacher is the most important person to find out the quality of education in India. He should be grateful in the society. His allowance and service standard should be better with due regards to their responsibilities and qualifications. Proper attention should be given for teacher education. They should also get academic freedom to write, to study and to speak on national and international issues. The constitution of India mentions freedom of expression to all.
• Language Development:
The policy had also focused on the development of Indian as well as foreign languages in India. The three-language formula should be introduced in which a student at the secondary level should know Hindi, English and the regional language of his state. The language Sanskrit has been included as an optional subject in the secondary level.
• Education Opportunity for all:
Under this policy every child of India should get education irrespective of caste, religion, region or whatever the case may be. Special importance should be given to backward classes, minority children, girls and physically challenged children to avail the education facilities.
Review of Literature
Author &Title Publication Review
Rajendra Pratap Gupta “How NEP can revolutionise India’s education system”
The Economic Times Jun 15, 2019 Speaks about Narendra Modi’s have shown through various policies and programs like the Swachh Bharat, Beti Padhao-Beti Bachao, Ujjwala Yojna, Skill India mission, and the health insurance scheme for poor (PMJAY). He is setting up new institutions like Rashtriya Shiksha Aayog and National Research Foundation, and addresses the issue of progression planning and filling up of vacancies.
Philip G. Altbach and Eldho Mathews “It’s time to act, not do more research”
The Hindu Times, July 01, 2019 As per the speakers, the challenges are not only to enrol students and improve graduation rates but also to make sure they are provided with a reasonable standard of quality. India has the largest number of students in private higher education in the world. But much of higher education is of poor quality and commercially oriented.
Milind Sohoni, Oshin Dharap
“New Educational Policy will ensure our higher education system remains a client of global science” The Indian Express Written Updated: July 18, 2019 It focuses on the requirement of the growth is urgent and require the highest intellect and competence and the skill to work across disciplines and agencies. The necessary institutional and individual skills are simply not there.
From above we can conclude is necessary to each and every individual. India has the largest number of students in private higher education in the world.
Objectives of study
- To understand the purpose of National Education Policy
- To identify the challenges faced in the national education mission
- To know the proposed changes in the new education policy
This research paper is descriptive in nature. It is based on secondary data, particularly on the analysis of the articles related to Education Policy. Further, data and information is gathered from research papers and internet sources [website of Ministry of Human Resource Development].
The sources of data collection in any research can be primary and secondary. Primary data is the data collected by the researcher herself for a specific purpose. For example, data collected by a student for his/her thesis or research project. Secondary data is data collected by someone else for some other purpose (but being utilized by the researcher for another purpose). Secondary data also means data that are already available i.e. they refer to the data which have already been collected and analyzed by someone else. When the researcher utilises secondary data, then he/she has to look into various sources from which he can obtain them.
Positives of the Indian Education System:
Indian Education System provides essential sex education and awareness leading to a healthier society with minimum cases of sexual harassment and reducing the number of misguided teens exponentially.
RESERVATION: Our education system ensures that students are aware of the fact that the family they are born in and their surname plays the most important role in determining what they deserve per unit of their efforts, irrespective of their financial condition or number of generations that already redeemed an advantage.
Innovation and Research: Student projects and research work are given utmost importance, except in IITs and some NITs. There is no place for breach of copyright. No one can copy or buy projects.
The researchers through the review of literature and discussions with academicians have identified the following challenges faced by the Indian education system:
- Lack of basic reading and arithmetic skills among the students in Indian Schools
- Infrastructure deficit- Lack of electricity, single-room schools, lack of drinking water facilities, unavailability of toilets, poor hygiene etc.
- Quality of teachers- Lack of skilled, trained teachers is another problem faced by our education system.
- Poor salary- In most cases, teachers are paid poorly which finally affects their interests. The quality of school education drops and the students are forced to spend additional money to avail tution facilities.
- School closure- Many schools are closed to low student strength, lack of teachers and infrastructure. The competition posed by private schools is also a major challenge to government schools.
- High- dropout rates- This is also a serious challenge, particularly in case of girls. This is due to various factors such as poverty, lack of toilets in schools, distance to schools and cultural elements.
- Poor governance and lack of accountability- Absence of teachers during school hours is another problem. School management committees are hardly functional. Also, parents are unaware of their rights and do not know whom to approach in such situations.
- Corruption and leakages of funds- Most of the fund which is selected for the development of schools gets enthusiastic by corrupt intermediaries. The fund transferred from central government to state government to schools involves many intermediaries. True receiver is able to get only a certain part of the fund.
Expected Impact of New Education Policy:
The impact that technology has in schools today is quite important as technology in education has the power to transform how people learn. Technology in the classroom became most important by improved learning, increased engagement of students and virtual programs. Technology now can be seen as an investment for productive learning as teachers want more technology in their classrooms. So is the case in India as well with its own challenges. With both opportunities and challenges, technology in Indian Education System is rather questionable situation. When many schools are adapting the advancement in technology, yet there are some schools that strongly believe in old practices than going with the wind. The widespread acceptance of technology in schools has changed the entire situation of how students learn. Teachers are working on how to teach with expanding technologies and students are using advanced technology to improve their learning and knowledge. The pros of technology in schools are:
- Effective learning: Technology in a classroom makes learning easier and effective. It helps the students to easily grab the content and information in a shorter span of time. immediate visibility of information for all the students is available.
- Skill development: Technology in schools can be seen as a skill-producing factor in students as many students focus on creating a presentation and expressing their knowledge rather than simply listening to the lecture. It helps students in learning things in a creative and innovative manner.
- Visual programs: The visual illustrations in the classroom make learning fun filled and easier. Technology prepares students for better future as it improves desire to learn among the students
- ONE OF A KIND CURRICULUM: Our education system is modified exactly for our needs and overall development of students.
- WORLD CLASS PRIMARY EDUCATION: Our education system gives highest priority to primary education as it is the most important phase of education indeed. Some of the most qualified teachers are appointed with attractive salaries.
- EQUAL IMPORTANCE TO SPORTS AND FITNESS: Sports and Physical education are given equal importance as academia. India’s brilliant performance at Olympics and all other international sports events except cricket certifies this point.
Education is the base for exploring each and every individual’s innovation and creative ideas. Individuals should be a skilful and good human being, contributing to economy of India. So there is one way that the individual will be independent for this all the universities should be autonomous so that they can design their latest syllabus as per today’s dynamic world.
- Sadovnik Alan R.(2014) , “Exploring Education: An Introduction to the Foundations of Education”, Routledge (4th Edition)
- Shukla. P. D. (1988), “New Education Policy in India”, Sterling Publishers
- Sharma R. A.(2004), “Development of Educational System in India” , R. Lall book depot, Meerut.