Globalization process and information technologies development have led to fundamental changes in understanding Journalism. Global journalism is a term merged out of this development and so gives your conceptual understanding of the practices and theories at present.
Stephen 2008, define global journalism as a system of newsgathering, editing and distribution not based on national or regional boundaries where it is not expected that shared national or community citizenship is the common references uniting news makers, journalists and audience. Example Cable News Network (CNN), British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) and Al-Jazeera.
Technological advancement has led to global journalism which becomes an extension of recent world communication strategies and opportunities by enhancing transparency and accountability in media coverage. It also covers relations that are influenced by different technological development like transnational across and continental relations generated by political issues, trade, armed conflicts and media.
New information technologies such as internet have led to changes of people’s work, communication and news floor hence internet become more important in political, economic and others. The internet expands and greatly influences more mediation between and among various different communities in interactivity, receiving of information and feedback.
In other way, global media have pushed away some communication barriers such as time, space and national borders. The growth of global journalism as well as new media like social media provide a great chance of getting and accessing worldwide information, facts and events to the global order.
Global journalism has led to simple sharing and access of different information that concern the global public spheres of influence this is due to the fact that today’s world communication barriers like place is not existing. Also, media coverage is increasing from day to day so enhance discussion among public members.
It’s true that globalization process and information technologies development have led to various fundamental changes in media communication. The merging of global journalism associated practices and some of mass communication theories. One of theory which supports global journalism practices is Two Step Flow Theory. It is a theory which influences different practices of global journalism.
Two step flow theory was first introduced by Paul Lazarsfeld, Bernard Berelson and Harzel Gaudet in The People’s Choice Study during Presidential election campaign. The study conducted in 1944 and focused on the process of decision making. The theory asserts that information from the mass media to their audiences flows into two ways, firstly from the media to a certain individuals as opinion leaders meaning people who are active media users , collect and pass their own interpretations in addition to the actual media content and secondly or later to the audience and public.
Also, founders of the theory express out many of people obtain information and opinions from other people apart from media or other sources of influence such as family members, friends and opinion leaders. Opinion leaders get messages from the mass media recast and make interpretation with their actual understanding of the media content and pass to the audience.
Global journalism has practices and theories which support the present media coverage. In consideration of two step flow theory, the following are the practices which accelerate and influence global journalism;
The theory support global journalism because it increase new media influence in decision making; This is true because issues which have been discussed by opinion leaders and passed to the media audience and public tend to influence and seem as a solution for a certain problem hence it asserts decision making.
Global journalism determine the circulation of political information; Through two step flow theory, global journalism practicing in determining the information cycle especially political as the most sphere of influence which takes the large percent of global issues. Most of information’s are coming from media and opinion leaders pay attention to the message and interpret to their own understanding of content and later moves to audience or publics.
Also the theory is applicable in global journalism at present time because opinion leaders are highly influential in changing people’s attitudes and behaviors; Most of opinion leaders done their media interpretation which later on help to change audiences behavior regarding to political or economic information and events. Example, the role of political leaders in enhancing nation’s political peace through different media programs.
Two step flow theory support global journalism due to the fact that opinion leaders play as source of political and communication information; opinion leaders shape political attitude and information as their social status which has greater interest in the topic. Also personal influence may provide mass media effects to audience as good news rather than depending on only media coverage of political issues.
Also opinion leaders filter and interpret message before they pass along to the public; although the theory facilitate the flowing of information in many direction through various media channels it also facilitate filtering process of media message through opinion leaders. Examples through gate keeping useful information’s are disseminated to the publics.
Global journalism through two step flow theory approach analyze media exposure and interpersonal communication; The development of information technology affect media communication because of technology being applied help in exposing media through information from opinion leaders. Also communication from one person such as opinion leaders helps in raising awareness and knowledge about global facts.
Moreover, at the age of social networking such as Facebook, Myspace and You tube the theory is still useful because it is used to track and trace different media messages and reach the system of interaction and feedback that attend them.
Even though the development of new media technologies do allow the easier targeting of message to individuals, it seems likely that large percentage of people do not trust media as much as members of social networks. Hence, publics have more access to other alternative means of information from opinion leaders.
Generally, the theory is applicable in global journalism as it helps different media to perform their practices such as influencing audience in decision making. Apart from practices, there is weakness of the theory in global journalism as it ignores mass media likely they have no ability to convey and interpret new message directly to the audience.
- Everethe, E.D. (2008). The Two Step Flow in the Internet age.
- Jallow, A.Y. The Emerging of Global Journalism and Social Media : Global Media Journal, Vol-13, Issue 25.
- Lloyd, R. B. (1970). The Two Step Flow Theory: Cross-cultural Implications.
- Stephen, D. R. (2008). Theorizing globalized journalism