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Influence of Vitamin C: Review of Literature and Discussion

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Introduction

Plants play a huge role such as supply food to nearly all terrestrial organisms in the function of the world and in everyday life. Just like humans need vitamin supplements for them to increase their productivity so many do believe that plants need the same as they are living organisms. Vitamins have many benefits in them that advance processes. I want to conduct this research as I believe that if we can find out how vitamins help plant growth it can be extremely beneficial to firstly poverty and world hunger as well as can help growth of plants as global warming increases. Vitamins are intricate chemical substances that are mainly in food. They allow the body to break down and use the basic elements of food, proteins, carbohydrates, and fats (Irishhealth.com, 2019). Most vitamins cannot be made in your body, so they must be acquired from food. The antioxidant vitamins that have been the concentration of most of the attention in plants are vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E. However, recent evidence indicates that vitamin B compounds could also play a substantial role as antioxidants in plants.

In this research task, I will be conducting primary and secondary research on whether vitamins effect plant growth and the specific type of vitamin that does. I will be conducting an experiment in order to get results as well as researching other results prior that have been conducted and opinions on the matter. In my experiment I will be using 3 different vitamins; these are vitamin C, vitamin B 1, and vitamin E. This will determine as to what in each vitamin has a certain effect on the rate of the growth of plants.

Every vitamin has a different function and works differently in a living organism, each vitamin has a different effect and will play a different part in the functioning and formation of plants. The Plant Journal, 2017 describes the newly-identified enzyme, GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase, which produces vitamin C, in plants. Vitamin C is already known to be an antioxidant, which helps plants deal with strains from drought to ozone and UV radiation, but until now it was unknown that plants could not grow without it. In plants, thiamine is known as a cofactor for substantial metabolic activities. Thiamine is known to be an crucial regulator that plays an important role in the plant’s primary regulatory system (Sciencedirect.com, 2019), this was published by Atiqah Subki on September 28th, 2018 and according to phys.org, an article that was published on November 27th, 2006 stated that Vitamin E is vital for plants to be able to succeed in reproducing well in lower temperatures. This will show in the experiment that will be conducted as well as the research that I will be conducting. This experiment can give sufficient information as to increase plant growth and make them more nutritious which can lead to curing world hunger and malnutrition in the poverty-driven areas and societies in the world.

  • Hypothesis: The plant that receives vitamin C will grow the tallest in terms of length
  • Aim: The aim of this experiment is to determine which vitamin, either vitamin C, B1, or E effects plant growth in terms of length the most
  • Independent variable: Different types of vitamins used (vitamin C, vitamin B1, and vitamin K)
  • Dependent variable: The amount of growth in length of the plant in a minimum amount of time due to a specific vitamin.

Review of Literature

Vitamins play a role in everyday life. Vitamins are compounds that cannot be produced by humans and thus need to be taken up in the diet. They have a complex biochemistry and play an essential role in human nutrition and health (Anon, 2019). Vitamin deficiencies cause diseases that can be severe and even deadly in some cases. Plants are extremely important to everyone in everyday life. I will be analyzing the effect of vitamins on plant growth by focusing on vitamin B1, vitamin C, and vitamin E. vitamin B1 is essential due to studies (the medical name for vitamin B1 is thymine) that show that thiamine is connected with cytokinin and plays role in bringing root and callus growth. Thiamine also helps the production of more secondary metabolites such as proteases in pineapple. Thiamine has various physiological functions in plants and it serves as cofactor in enzymatic reactions involved in the synthesis of amino acids, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and pentose phosphate pathway. Thiamine is also been associated with the resistance of disease, This is shown in a source namely the Role of Vitamins in Plant Growth and their Impact on Regeneration of Plants under Invitro Condition by Rajesh Singh Tomar, Snehal Khamba, Shuchi Kaushik, Raghvendra Kumar Mishra available in the International Journal for Research in Applied Science & Engineering Technology (IJRASET) in Volume 6 Issue III, March 2018 (Anon, 2019).

In this source, it explains the importance of vitamin B1 such as having a part in the processes fundamental protection of plants against biotic and abiotic strains in plant growth and how it effects root and shoot growth as the root are thymine efficient. Although my hypothesis is that vitamin C will still grow the largest in terms of length because vitamin B1 effects the roots and the roots don’t necessarily affect the growth of the actual plant but rather the strength and length of the roots. It also states the importance of vitamin C. Vitamin C gives protection against the damaging side-effects of light during photosynthesis, the course by which light energy is used to convert carbon dioxide into plant matter this is why my hypothesis is that the plant receiving vitamin C will grow the longest in length because vitamin C has so many benefits such as those mentioned above. This source is extremely reliable due to it being published in an international journal and has been referenced worldwide, as well as the facts have backing up which shows where they come from. This source is also very useful as it gives a lot of information that I will need when I write up my own experiment as well as to compare my findings with and has significant information to my research, it is as well a valid source because the information is logical and relevant to my research. The limitations though are that it only speaks of two of the three vitamins that I will be dealing with as well as its information is directed into a certain direction that may not all apply for what I am specifically looking at.

Of reference to a study conducted, that was published in The Plant Journal, in 2017 at the University of Exeter and Shimane University in Japan by scientists. The lead author is Professor Nicholas Smirnoff. The title for this article is study shows that vitamin C is essential for plant growth in the terms that they proved that vitamin C is vital for a plant to grow effectively and for the plant to be 100% productive as well as grow to its full potential and be as strong as possible. This is just like in my hypothesis that the plant that receives vitamin C will grow the longest in length because as the article stated how necessary vitamin C is for a plant to grow and the pros and positive effects of it. This source states that this discovery could have consequences for agriculture and for the production of vitamin C dietary enhancements. They say that vitamin C-free plants are actually unable to grow. Vitamin C provides protection in many aspects of plants especially harmful ones. This discovery has opened many new doors as well as can decrease the cost of what people pay for vitamin C supplements, this is because if people are getting more vitamin C in their daily diet they will not need to take as many supplements if any in that matter as they are receiving it through food. The low demand will therefore make the prices drop of the supplements as they won’t be needed. This relates to my hypothesis that vitamin C makes such a big impact on the growth of plants and so the plant with vitamin C should grow the largest in terms of length This source is extremely valid as the investigation was done by scientists and it has been published in a valid journal, it is logical and relevant to my research as well as this source has good credentials as the source as been reviewed and approved by many. It is therefore reliable as it is accurate as the facts are correct as well as the information corresponds to my research. This is extremely useful as the information given can help me with my own research and can be a good guide throughout this research. There are limitations though that can be seen as setbacks such as this only gives information on one vitamin out of the three that I will be looking at as well as it can be seen as a one-sided view or experiment.

The third source, according to a study conducted with the title the effect of vitamin D and vitamin E on the growth of pea plants. The authors are A. Walker, Y.Snadou, et al. This source states facts on vitamin D and E but I will only be focusing on vitamin E. vitamin E is well known to have positive effects on the health of an organism, and in plants there seem to be a link between vitamin E to improve growth. Vitamin E has observable effects on the pea plant which shows that it has the ability to improve the productivity and longevity of the plant. According to another study linked to this one, titled What Kind of Vitamins Do Plants Need? Written by Tamara Christine Van Hooser; published a recent version on December 10, 2018. This source states that Phys.org reports an investigation from the University of Toronto and Michigan State University that shows that vitamin E supplements decrease a plant’s vulnerability to cold temperatures. The result could be the expansion of cold-resistant plant species, which would help gardeners in cooler climates by producing more effective crops and yields. Cool-weather gardeners can experiment with how applying vitamin E to developing plants affects the longevity or growth of their crops (Scirp.org, 2019). This however does not affect the growth in length of the plant but rather the conditions which does not affect my hypothesis which is related to which vitamin will make the plant grow the longest. This article speaks about vitamin B, vitamin C, and vitamin E as well. They say that The University of California, states that there is, by contrast, Advanced Nutrients’ researchers assert that application of vitamin B supplements harvests stronger plants with a higher yield than those without the treatment. They also state that the University of California, Riverside biochemistry professor, Daniel Gallie indicates that vitamin C appears to increase a plant’s smog tolerance, improve the process of photosynthesis and make the fruit more nutritious. His findings show that vitamin C supplements act as a protection against the ozone, the most damaging part of smog, decreasing brown spots, dodging stunted growth, and raising crop yields (Newsroom.ucr.edu, 2019). Both these sources are extremely reliable sources due to them being processed on well-known sites and there is accurate information, as well as these sources, are valid as proper research has been conducted and valid statements with backing up proof has been provided. There is accurate and logical information. This is extremely useful information for me as it is all the vitamins that I will be using when I conduct my own research and they have outcomes that I can compare my research to as well as give me an idea of what I should expect my results to be, and the information is very significant to my research. There are a few limitations that are things such as that this research was conducted in a certain manner as well as it has very specific investigations and is not a broad sense of information and outcomes to the experiment or findings.

Methodology

Method

  1. You will need the following:
  2. Apparatus:
  • 2x plastic flower bed trays
  1. Products:
  • 1x packet of seeds
  • 1x bag of soil
  • 30x vitamin C tablets (bought from store)
  • 30x vitamin E (bought from store)
  • 30x vitamin B1 (bought from store)
  • Water

Method

  1. Place a spoon full of soil into each plastic flower bed
  2. Then place 5 seeds only in each bed
  3. Fill the rest with more soil
  4. Put 10ml of normal water in each bed
  5. Then label 2 trays with each vitamin and have 1 bed that is your controlled variable which is labeled controlled
  6. Water each bed with 100mg in 10 ml of water with their respective water- vitamin solution daily
  7. See results

Ethical issues:

There are no ethical issues due to working with plants and not animals. So therefore there is nothing to consider that would be illegal or not ethical in the way that things were dealt with or used

Results

Type of Vitamin

  • Vitamin C
  • Vitamin B1
  • Vitamin E

Controlled variable

  1. Week 1- length in CM
  • 1.1
  • 1
  • 0.88
  • 0.9

Type of vitamin

  • Vitamin C
  • Vitamin B1
  • Vitamin E

Controlled variable

  1. Week 2- length in CM
  • 1.79
  • 1.4
  • 1.13
  • 1.2

Type of Vitamin

  • Vitamin C
  • Vitamin B1
  • Vitamin E

Controlled variable

  1. Week 3- length in CM
  • 2.4
  • 2
  • 1.76
  • 1.86

Type of Vitamin

  • Vitamin C
  • Vitamin B1
  • Vitamin E

Controlled variable

  1. Week 4 – length in CM
  • 3
  • 2.5
  • 2.1
  • 2.17

Analysis and Interpretation of Results

Week 1:

The plant that received vitamin C grew the most (1.1cm) and had the quickest start of budding through the soil.

Vitamin B1 also had a good start to the growth of the plant (1cm). Vitamin E had no impact on the effect of the plant growth (0.88cm) as I think it maybe have actually stunted its growth as it was less than the controlled variable (0.9cm)

Week 2:

All the plants grew a substantial amount in the second week with the lengths now being at vitamin C being (1.79cm), vitamin B1 (1.4cm), vitamin E (1.13cm), and the controlled variable being (1.2cm). Although they all increased vitamin c was still the most followed by vitamin B1. The controlled variable and vitamin E were almost identical in length with shows that vitamin E had no effect on the plant growth

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Week 3:

This week the plant again grew quite a lot in length, resulting in vitamin C being 2.4cm, vitamin B1 being 2cm, vitamin E being 1.76cm, and then the controlled variable is 1.86cm in length.

Week 4:

This was the final week of results that I took for growth of the plants due the vitamin intake. The results were, vitamin C being 3cm, vitamin B1 being 2.5cm, vitamin E being 2.1cm and then the controlled variable was 2.17cm. This shows that vitamin C once again had the biggest impact on plant growth closely followed by vitamin B1.

Discussion

Through this research task and experiment that I conducted, I have formulated results in which I will compare the two sets of results to form a conclusion.

In my primary research in which I did an experiment testing the effects of the different vitamins on plant growth, my results were as followed.

The plant with Vitamin C grew the most and this is the same as my secondary research as it’s stated in an article that vitamin C is crucial for plant growth. This source published in The Plant Journal, in 2017 at the University of Exeter and Shimane University in Japan by scientists by the author Professor Nicholas Smirnoff states that this discovery could have consequences for agriculture and for the manufacturing of vitamin C dietary supplements. They proved that vitamin C is crucial for plant growth. They say that vitamin C-free plants are actually unable to grow. Which I had shown in my research and so vitamin C has the greatest effect of plant growth as I have proven in my own experiment.

Vitamin B1 also had an effect on the growth of the plant when compared to the controlled variable but not nearly as much as the plant with vitamin C. When research was done an article published in the International Journal for research in the area of Applied Science & Engineering Technology (IJRASET) in Volume 6 Issue III, March 2018, showed the importance of vitamin B1 in plant growth and how it affects root and shoot growth as the root are thymine efficient. Advanced Nutrients’ researchers state that application of vitamin B supplements creates stronger plants with a higher yield than those without the treatment. Thiamine also has numerous physiological functions in plants and it aids as cofactor in enzymatic reactions. Thiamine is also been related with the resistance of disease

Then the plant with vitamin E in my experiment actually reduced the plant’s growth as the plant grew less than the controlled variable plant. This source states that Phys.org reports a study from the University of Toronto and Michigan State University that specifies vitamin E supplements decrease a plant’s vulnerability to cold temperatures. The result could be the expansion of cold-resistant plant species, which would have an advantage to gardeners in cooler climates by generating better crops and yields. Cool-weather gardeners can tryout with how applying vitamin E to developing plants affects the longevity or growth of their crops.

This shows that vitamin E does not affect the actual growth of the plant but rather its state of it (Homeguides.sfgate.com, 2019).

So all in all, the results to my experiment correspond to my research that was previously conducted and so my hypothesis was true being that the plant that received vitamin C will grow the longest in length, as well as my aim, was achieved to its full extent.

Conclusion

So therefore we can clearly see through all my findings and research that vitamin C has the greatest effect on plant growth and therefore my hypothesis of which was ‘the plant that receives vitamin C will grow the largest in terms of length’ is correct. The literature review also proves that vitamin c had the greatest effect when others had done research on the topic and came up with research, valid findings such as in The Plant Journal, in 2017 at the University of Exeter and Shimane University, the author is Professor Nicholas Smirnoff. The title for this article is study displays vitamin C is vital for plant growth in the terms that they proved that vitamin C is essential for plants to grow effectively, which proved correct as well to my primary research of the experiment I conducted. Which this concluded that vitamin C must impact the rate of growth in length of the plant.

There were a few limitations which were that the research done by others that are documented in journals etc. are on plants in general or on a specific plant and all plants are different so it can be a very broad topic which needs to be narrowed down. Another limitation is that the experiment needs to be done a couple of times to get accurate results as well as that the experiment does not always work if you don’t keep everything the exact same all the time. As well as too much of a variety of research can be contradictory

My recommendation is that you always have a fully researched understanding of the topic before you start your own conduction of research to be sure you know what is going on as well as what to look out for. Another recommendation is to choose a topic that is not very broad otherwise it is extremely difficult to be specific and accurate as well as to compile findings on only your topic

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Influence of Vitamin C: Review of Literature and Discussion. (2022, September 27). Edubirdie. Retrieved January 30, 2023, from https://edubirdie.com/examples/influence-of-vitamin-c-review-of-literature-and-discussion/
“Influence of Vitamin C: Review of Literature and Discussion.” Edubirdie, 27 Sept. 2022, edubirdie.com/examples/influence-of-vitamin-c-review-of-literature-and-discussion/
Influence of Vitamin C: Review of Literature and Discussion. [online]. Available at: <https://edubirdie.com/examples/influence-of-vitamin-c-review-of-literature-and-discussion/> [Accessed 30 Jan. 2023].
Influence of Vitamin C: Review of Literature and Discussion [Internet]. Edubirdie. 2022 Sept 27 [cited 2023 Jan 30]. Available from: https://edubirdie.com/examples/influence-of-vitamin-c-review-of-literature-and-discussion/
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