Oral cancer is known as one of the most popular types of cancer among people all over the globe, and there are about 200K deaths recorded annually, as a result of it. Oral cancer occurs when a bunch of malignant cells infect the oral tissues, and this harms the oral cavity overall, including different parts, such that the lips, gum, palate, and tongue. It mainly happens as a result of carelessness when it comes to dental care. There are various symptoms that could indicate the presence of oral cancer, for instance, the inability of swallowing food, lip or mouth inflammation, loosened teeth, mouth bleeding, and others.
There are several causes for oral cancer, indeed, but the over-consumption of alcohol could be one of the main reasons. Moreover, combining both, smoking cigarettes, and drinking alcohol in big amounts, is surly more effective than doing one of these habits all alone. Based on researches, 3 out of 4 people who drink and smoke, simultaneously, are mostly affected by oral cancer more than others, because the ingestion of alcohol dehydrates the cell walls, which would make them absorb the tobacco carcinogens even more and facilitate its entrance to the mouth tissues smoothly. It could also damage the natural resistance ability of the antibodies to prevent the formation of cancel cells or to fight against them, and against any other disease as well. Reducing the intake of both, tobacco and alcohol, would definitely have a significant positive effect in reducing the possibility of being infected with oral cancer, nonetheless, the risk of being infected should be as minimal as those who neither smoke, nor drink, in the up-coming 10 years.
Experts, such as the UT Southwestern Medical Center's oral surgeons, have stated some scientific evidence that strengthens these ideas. The cirrhosis of the liver, as a result of the consumption of alcohol, could be associated with oral cancer as well, based on some researches. Those who suffer cirrhosis mainly develop a shiny, smooth oral mucosa's appearance (in both of the throat and the mouth's tissues), due to liver-induced changes in the cells. Such cases and the actual reason behind the presence of this isn't fully understandable, yet, so that more researches and investigations are being done.
There are also some several kinds of tobacco which are smokeless, pan, which are pieces of areca nut, and slaked lime, are enclosed in a piper betel vine leaf. The pan, and all forms of the smokeless tobacco contain substances which is capable of causing cancer in living tissues. Past researches assure that the micronuclei cells are notably larger in quantity in smokeless tobacco users, in-compare to normal smokers. The buccal mucosa, gingiva and buccal sulcus are in high risk to get affected because of the placement of tobacco liquids, such as khaini, gutkha, and betel quid, in the oral cavity. Also, one more cause of oral cancer that the majority of people aren’t aware of, is the direct exposure to the sun while sun-bathing, and using lip-balms or creams could definitely reduce the risk of getting oral cancer out of it. Also, wearing a head-piece, such as caps, could block the harmful ultraviolet rays.
The treatment for such a type of cancer usually depends on its stage, and the overall health of the patient and their will. One can under-go for just one kind of treatment or a combination of cancer treatments that include chemo and radio therapy, along with the surgeries and each type of them classifies. As an example, if a patient decides to under-go a surgery, the surgeon must check-up whether the cancer cells have spread towards the neck or not. He might cut away the tumor and a part of the uninfected tissues around that area to make sure that all the cancer cells are well-removed. However, in-case of larger tumors, a part of the patient’s jawbone, or a part of their tongues should be removed.
If the cancer cells have spread to the neck, and to the lymph-nodes specifically, the patient would be advised to go through a surgery to remove lymph nodes and the tissues that might’ve been infected, as well, and they might also need some kind of treatment after the surgery. It’s also known that it takes a long period to heal from such, and a re-construct surgery for the mouth could be done, to be able to talk and eat normally, again. Yet, treatments that the patents might go for, could also have some side-effects, which could mainly be the destruction of healthy cells and tissues, but this mostly depends on the location, the type, and the stage of the tumor. The routine of visiting the dr for a radiation session or whatever the treatment is, is really hard for the patients and their families, which could also cause some psychological issues, such as mood swings, irritability, phobias, insomnia, depression, and the list goes on.
On the other hand, the five-year survival rates are getting more advanced and getting better. Between the 1975-1977 the survivals percentage were 49, but is rose to 68 percent in the interval 2002-2008.
There are many ways that one could do to avoid mouth caner or eliminate the risk of getting it. One should brush his teeth regularly, and after having any meal, floss their teeth every day, visit their dentists regularly, and avoid alcohol and tobacco as much as they can. Governments should also create some strict rules to ban the over-consumption of tobacco and alcohol, as they’re the main source of mouth cancer. Raising awareness about this type of cancer would make people more aware about how much they’re harming themselves and other around them, and they should know that the immediate consultation matters and has a significant effect of getting rid of the tumor in some really early stages, and increases the survival rate.