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Oscar Wilde's Interpretation of Victorian Ideology in The Pictures’ of Dorian Gray

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Introduction and Background Information on the Era

Background

In what ways is Victorian ideology imposed upon in The Pictures’ of Dorian Gray by Oscar Wilde? As an era construed by the rule of Monarch, Victoria over England from the mid-1800s in the romantic ages to the early 1900s, the Victorian period was a interval of considerable progress. However, many societal echelons within the era caused countless problems for its people. Rigorous rules and guidelines were set on behalf of authoritative figures and accepted by the European people. The cathedral and many other members of authority set a goal looking to establish a case of fairness and legitimacy, proposing that these rules comply with this society. A positive side-effect of such industrialization had allowed for societal developments working as a framework for a regularly propelling population. New thoughts and ideas in the sciences and language as it increased the teachings of researchers and artisans likewise.

Themes of Decadence and Aestheticismicle

Dual viewpoints that the author thoroughly discloses throughout the novel are the concepts of decadence and Aestheticismicle. Both philosophies of decadence and Aestheticismicle are complimentary towards one another since they can be utilized correspondingly. The term, “Decadence” is used to describe a moral or social decay as exhibited by over the top liberality, in joy or extravagance. The term associates itself towards prizing artificial excellence over natural magnificence; as a result[footnoteRef:1]. Similarly, the term “kAestheticismicle” can be outlined by the simple [1: Huszar, George De. “Nietzsche’s Theory of Decadence and the Transvaluation of All Values.” Journal of the History of Ideas, vol. 6, no. 3, 1945, p. 259., doi:10.2307/2707290.]

motto, “art for the sake of art”[footnoteRef:2], referring to shallow exquisiteness being seen as crucial to a particular piece of art rather than the theme or more profound meaning that the craft holds[footnoteRef:3]. Wilde showcases these theories in his narrative through refuting any overall moral purpose to craftsmanship and extolling a routine of luxuriousness and pleasure. [2: “Art for the Sake of Art – Modern Art Terms and Concepts.” The Art Story, Modern Art Insight, www.theartstory.org/definition-art-for-art.htm.] [3: Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. “Aestheticism.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 26 Oct. 2018, www.britannica.com/art/Aestheticism.][bookmark: _Toc534117203][bookmark: _Toc534118247][bookmark: _Toc534118396][bookmark: _Toc534118469]Aim

The research question exploited for this paper is deserving for this essay, as it would empower a more profound comprehension of the novel than a necessary scholarly investigation would accomplish. A piece of writing is neither composed nor acquired in a void of nothingness, therefore, understanding the circumstances in which the author formed his work will enable his audience to comprehend his inspirations additionally. Furthermore, the reader can recognize a more rational judgement for his narrative in this revolutionary period. Oscar Wilde epitomizes the theory of decadence and Aestheticismiclein the book, through praising debauchery any disregarding any noble aspiration to art. As a result, Wilde manages to impose the principles of Victorian ideology.

Main Body: Ethics

Wilde’s Lack of Usage of Morality and Ethics

Wilde’s works in all of his pieces of writing including The Pictures’ of Dorian Gray disregards any ethical or effective tenacity when compared to other sections of writing in his era. He manages to discontinue most, if not all principles of his period when it concerns ethics. He feels that these develop no alteration to his work nor any piece of his art. Wilde first manages to do this by telling the reader that any part of art should be prioritized to being judged through shallow features. Wilde proves through inaugurating, “there’s is noo sucha thing as a moral or an immoral book” (Wilde 3). Through this quote, the writer looks to warn the reader in the sense that they should not view his narrative to be seen in a way that ‘disregards morality’ because of its taboo subject matter. Wilde contrastingly intends for his audience to gain an understanding or appreciation for the concealed lure and beauty of the content in the book. The late kRobert kBoyle, a critical litterateur of his time once claimed, ‘morality is of interest only as subject matter; ethics should not constrict his [an artist’s] scope, nor does he concern himself with encouraging or discouraging moral behaviour. The work of art is useless; it finds its goal within itself’ (Drumovadfdf 5)[footnoteRef:4]. To summarize, litterateur Oscar Wilde is not seen to give light to morality regardless of its presentation. The writer does not wish to associate his work with the strict principles of society due to the severe setbacks it can bring to his craftsmanship. Wilde tends to bring light to the corrupt nature of his work as he writes, “art is at once surface and symbol. Those who go beneath the surface do so at their peril” (Wilde 4). In his writing, Wilde therefore [4: Birch, T., 1772, The Works of the Honourable Robert Boyle, Thomas Birch, (ed.), 6 vols. (London, 1772; reprinted Hildesheim: George Olms, 1966), a reprinting of the five-volume 1744 edition.]

ensures the public that he intends for this narrative to be read with a manner of open-mindedness. The author justifies to the reader that the ideas and philosophies existing in his narrative will be critical or decisive due to the choices of the characters presented. He also certifies that he is in no means attending to a political schema within the narrative. A journalist of the name, Carolyn Burdett also makes claims in a newspaper editorial regarding the philosophies of decadence and Aestheticismicle. She declares how normal Victorian society views literature and the arts as a window dedicated to self-improvement or how it is viewed as a “spur” for worthy pieces of art.[footnoteRef:5] Oscar Wilde contrastingly supposes that his craftsmanship will merely turn into another propaganda piece if it follows Carolyn’s ideology. The author does prove that he writes the novel with an intent to spread a message. This is mainly manifested when as he writes of an exchange between two individuals in the book. When there is an exchange between LordookdkdkkHenri and Basil, Henri KWotton articulates, ‘ beauty varnishes where’s an intellectualical expressions begins. Intellect is in itself a mode of exaggeration and destroys the harmony of any face” (Wilde 6). This quotation proves that Wilde intends for the reader to understand that making any coherent breakdown of an artistic piece can in-turn make that piece lose any of its significance in an instance. Building a more in-depth analysis of a craft can make that piece forget its universal magnificence, which is something that Wilde wishes the reader does not do. On the contrary, he wants for the reader to admire the superficial beauty of his craft. Wilde’s narrative is an eccentric novel amid its first couple of pages. [5: Burdett, Carolyn. “Aestheticism and Decadence.” The British Library, The British Library, 17 Feb. 2014,www.bl.uk/romantics-and-victorians/articles/Aestheticismicle-and-decadence.] [bookmark: _Toc534117206][bookmark: _Toc534118249][bookmark: _Toc534118399][bookmark: _Toc534118472]Wilde’s Interpretation on Ethics and its Relationship With Art

Oscar Wilde speaks about the characters in his work and claims their interpretation shows that ‘ the compass of ethics and the compass of art are separate and distinct.’ The novelist expresses this in a letter he wrote of a magazine[footnoteRef:6]. Wilde addresses that his novel contains no ethical drive. He also proclaims the idea that there can’t be any ethics behind artistry because the justifiable craft is solely divergent from morality. Throughout the novel, he embodies this philosophy through exhibiting ethicality and attractiveness. Dorian Gray, the antagonist exemplifies this through a continuously being described as charming and cheerful in the narrative disregarding his moral deterioration. Dorian’s facial features as described are very “gentle” and “harmless.’ The author conveys that looks aren’t everything as he goes on about how one’s appearance can be deceptive and may not disclose their true personality. This is an idea that not many Victorian readers were familiar with as they lived in a period of “literature [abounded] with expressions of faith in physiognomy” (kDrumovak 7)[footnoteRef:7]. This belief also affiliates with the idea that a person’s physical characteristics (especially their facial features) are competent in illuminating their real personality. The author combats this thought to convey that one’s ethics and facial features should not be associated with each other. Another character, an actress, Sybil Vane also nurtures this philosophy on impartiality concerning one’s attractiveness and personality. When she is met with Dorian Gray as an actress, both Sybil and Dorian love each other. However, Sybil’s acting, as a result, begins to lack of substance. Wilde tells the reader that the reasoning behind this is because when she started to fall for Dorian, she went from ensuing acting to following regular female-like virtue. Dorian Gray states, ‘she acted poorly because she had known the reality of love. When she knew its unreality, she died, as Juliet might’ (kWildek 106). The passing of the actress and thus her removal ensues of virtue. Wilde exhibits the idea that Sybil could have never existed in both the sides of morals and craft. These are two philosophies which in Wilde’s perspective, cannot fundamentally concur. [6: Benson, Peter. “Wilde and Morality (Issue 65).” Philosophy Now: a Magazine of Ideas, 2008, philosophynow.org/issues/65/Wilde-and-Morality.] [7:Ellis, Havelock. “The Contemporary Science Series .” Full Text of ‘Passing’, London: F. Warne; New York: Scribner, Welford, and Armstrong, 1772, archive.org/stream/physiognomyexpre00mantuoft/physiognomyexpre00mantuoft_djvu.txt.] [bookmark: _Toc534117207][bookmark: _Toc534118250][bookmark: _Toc534118400][bookmark: _Toc534118473]Ethics and the Universe

The strict Victorian principles in association with morals are established with countless conventional classic pieces of art when an individual character’s qualities or immoralities control one’s future fortune. Oscar Wilde faces this notion in The Pictures’ of Dorian Gray when he uses irony (situational). Basil, for instance, a character who moreover stays ethical throughout the narrative manages to meet a cruel conclusion to his story at the end of the book. Once Basil recognizes a rotten defaced portrait he crafted of Dorian Gray, he sees this inconvenience as a medium of “universal justice” (kWildek 151). As a result, Dorian refutes such a chastisement, so he rushes towards Basil and stabs him. Undeservingly, Basil manages to meet his violent and graphic death despite staying temperate and generous for the course of the book. He has a belief that a more vicious power will chastise Dorian for his wrongdoings. Dorian Gray nevertheless believes his immoralities will not control the consequence of his eventual fate for a simple painting, Dorian Gray ceases to face the consequences of actions by others but only himself. Two other personalities in the narrative which also come to face an unfortunate passing despite their righteousness are kJamesk and kSybilk. kJameskVane is a character living a strict, principled kVictorian lifestyle full of morality which decrees that he ensures security for the protection of his sister at all times. James shows this as he states: “there is a God in heaven, if [Dorian] ever does you any wrong, I shall kill him” (kWildek67). Following this in the narrative, kSybilk does meet kDorian’s wrath as he does her harm causing her to kill herself. kSybil comes to undergo this fate despite being one of the most harmless people in the novelist’s narrative. As vowed, kJames attempts to go on to murder kDorian. However, he does not succeed in doing so indicating that kWilde’sk heaven has no God. Additionally, James meets his eventual death as he is gruesomely shot 9being mistaken for game. Fortune only seems to favour the unethical Dorian Gray as the world seems to bring a gruesome fate to anyone who wishes to harm his character. This further proves that morality has no course to kDorian’s ultimate fate. Oscar Wilde exhibits this ideology with means to convince readers that obeying any ethical convention to meet a complementary result during a lifetime is idiotic and completely impractical. In its cynical perspective of the universe, The Pictures’ of Dorian Gray rejects any ethical reasoning to artistry and also to the world.

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Main Body: Debauchery

Wilde’s Use of Debauchery

Oscar Wilde is also capable of praising a life of intemperate debauchery through antagonizing a harsh principled Victorian environment. Oscar Wilde institutes debauchery which parades a life of seeking excitement to denounce the various forms of self-restraint. One of the more obnoxious characters of the novel, Henri KWotton ascertains this philosophy toward Dorian Gray as he advises him: ‘Don’t squander the gold of your days … Be always searching for new sensations. Be afraid of nothing . . . A new Hedonism…It is what our century wants’ (Wilde 24-25). KWotton sees no advantage in interacting with the individuals he sees as ‘below’ him. As a pessimistic individual, Henri KWotton thinks that society does not sustain to an ethical agenda. Consequently, Henri condemns the action of compromising his enjoyment to attend to other people. The author, therefore, uncovers the act regarding asceticism as ‘discourteous”, because the philosophy “deadens the senses” (Wilde 21). Wilde perceives the act of tolerance as a gateway to purify a person rather than a way to demoralize them. Dealing with the self-temperate Victorian society, the author demeans their ideologies resulting in a piece of craft ahead of its period.

Debauchery of the Victorian Era

As The Pictures’ of Dorian Gray promotes the hedonism, Oscar Wilde presents Dorian Gray pondering himself of mischievousness. Gray is outlined to have a corrupted mind in the Victorian environment due to his care-free actions. He shows this through the anti-gay dogma presented in the narrative. As Basil is wary of Gray’s unethical values, he indicates, ‘why is your friendship so fatal to young men?’ (144). Resulting in disbelief and sickening response from the Victorian reciters, Basil blames Dorian Gray for alluring males into implausible relationships. Journalist Roger Lockhurst also articulates that the novel and its unbelievably divisive content had criticizers classify the narrative as filled with ‘esoteric prurience’ and ‘leprous.’ Similarly, Wilde associates his story with narcotics abuse as he writes Dorian as a character to treat himself to this activity. Dorian does this in hopes to cure himself with drug-use through attending to ‘opium-dens.’ He claims that these will help him to clear himself of ‘old sins’ that are ‘destroyed by the madness of sins that were new’ (Wilde 176). The author utilizes colourful imagery with means to exhibit Dorian Gray’s plunging into madness. Dorian does this through chasing substances which are banned in society. Oscar Wilde was one who did not view his work to be ‘unethical’ since he understood unveiling such a way of life does not necessarily make his work seem like propaganda, although many irritated Victorian readers might have thought otherwise. Wilde intended his work to be a canvas to express a story of which, taking a more thorough analysis would be at the readers’ expense. Solitarily, philosopher kRobert Boylek was seen as the few criticizers of his period to endorse Wilde’s work claiming, ‘critics of Wilde’s novel, suffer from seeing their savage faces reflected in the artist’s creation ‘ (kkkkkDrumova 4)[footnoteRef:8]. Despite the intense subject matter present in his narrative regarding narcotics abuse and sexuality, The author still upholds his belief that a work of fiction must not meet the same constraints that were present during the period. [8: Birch, T., 1772, The Works of the Honourable Robert Boyle, Thomas Birch, (ed.), 6 vols. (London, 1772; reprinted Hildesheim: George Olms, 1966), a reprinting of the five-volume 1744 edition.]

The Debauchery and Greed of Henri KWotton

Unsurprisingly, amongst Oscar Wilde’s contemporary debauchery, there is also a presence of severe greediness, an attribute which is present for countless instances in the narrative. During a discussion regarding Gray’s engagement, Lord Henri explains that “the real drawback to marriage is that it makes one unselfish. And unselfish people are colourless. They lack individuality” (kkWildek 72). Lord Henri, a figure of selfishness throughout the novel views altruism like a contrasting element to his otherwise esthetic life. The author takes Henri’s belief up an extra step when Wilde describes that the connoisseur would practise new debauchery at the expense of others. Dorian Gray gets word of this insight very late, while he discusses, “you would sacrifice anybody, [Henri], for the sake of an epigram” (Wilde 195). Due to Lord Henri’s spoiled nature, Dorian is described to fall under Henri’s influence as he alters from an undamaging soul to a manipulative and narcissistic person. Through remaining mindful of his immorality and damaging views, Henri seems to purposefully spread his ideas to an innocent being like Dorian, to give light to his universal viewpoint. Lord Henri pursues his Ideology by manipulating the likes of Dorian and turning an innocent boy into ‘gag.’ Lord Henri enunciates, “one could never pay too high a price for any sensation” (Wilde 56), claiming that this ‘price’ can also be the life of a soul like Dorian. Wilde continues to disgust the readers of his theories through conjoining the philosophies of Aestheticismicle along evil and menacing traces of egotism.

Henri’s Influence of Debauchery on Dorian Gray

As a result, Dorian Gray just like Lord Henri destroys the lives off of other people with the means of enhancing his lifestyle. This theory is presented in his relationship with actress, Sibyl Vane. Dorian feels a downright egotistical love towards Sibyl which is evident when he ridicules her for one poor acting performance. “You have killed my love. You used to stir my imagination. Now you don’t even stir my curiosity… without your art you are nothing” (Wilde 85). The selfish individual views his romantic affiliation through Sibyl like a picturesque play, which it isn’t. As Dorian sees how Sibyl is beyond her acting abilities, he is described as displeased of her as the lust Dorian once held, has now disappeared. When Dorian meets Hetty Merton and starts liking her, and he kills Sybil in the pretext of her failing to his expectations. Dorian is of the opinion that he is helping Hetty by not corrupting her as he has done with others: “we were to have gone away together this morning at dawn. Suddenly I was determined to leave her as flower-like as I had found her” (Wilde 201). When Lord Henri sees Dorian’s genuine intentions, he interferes with Dorian suggesting to Dorian that ridding himself of Hetty was seen as a ‘unique’ decision rather than a selfish one. Dorian had intentions of ‘making a scene’ as if it’s a game to him to act as the ‘gallant hero.’ Henri, as usual, is contemptuous to think Dorian’s pride and narcissism is the cause of Dorian leaving Hetty, while he has no enduring virtuousness to save Hetty out of his heart. As a result, Lord Henri glorifies hedonism when he fails to discipline his protégé for his negatively impactful actions. Henri is aware that he is a narcissist himself giving him no right to scold Dorian. Therefore, through the glorification of debauchery and its lifestyle to minimalize justification and ethics, the author challenges Victorian philosophies.

Debauchery: Thoughts on the Corrupt Lifestyle

In light of its unfortunate ending, many criticizers think The Pictures’ of Dorian Gray does not represent a glowing testimonial for a corrupt way of living. However, it is instead an advising narrative based on the threats of hedonism. When Dorian Gray finally confronts his sinful nature as he realizes the sickening deeds he has done for a hedonistic lifestyle Wilde claims, “He loathed his beauty … It was his beauty that had ruined him…His beauty had been to him but a mask, his youth but a mockery’ (Wilde 210). Dorian’s shallow minority and attractiveness compromise him no support as he realizes the real burden of his behaviour, proving that the aesthetic purpose his lifestyle followed was useless. Additionally, he is determined to rid himself of such a depraved life thoroughly, in hopes of beginning a new life in which he had aspirations of being a better person than what he turns out to be. Dorian performs many vows towards God (someone he didn’t believe in up until this point). He claims he feels apologetic for his foolish acts of crime thus believing in the faith of the Victorian people.

Conclusion

The Novel as a Whole: Wilde’s Way of Imposing Victorian Ideals

Nevertheless, The Pictures’ of Dorian Gray’s conclusion mistakes Wilde’s intention of insisting for a puritan plan the whole time; Wilde in short, merely establishes that everything is in fair balance. Whereas Lord Henri is aware of appreciating the splendour he confronts throughout his life, Gray pursuits these same splendours while disregarding formality. Dorian attempts to understand each sensation while simultaneously consuming all the magnificence in the universe. Mitsuharu Matsuoka also writes in his essay, “Dorian is ultimately…choking on his New Hedonism,” (Matsuoka 78)[footnoteRef:9]. Similar to the Opium den addicts, Dorian Gray cultivates defiance against ordinary beauty until he is no longer satisfied by it. Dorian hopes to dive further into the darkness, where to his threat, he uncovers the crooked and felonious. Dorian depicts one outing at the opium den, ‘The twisted limbs, the gaping mouths, the staring lustreless eyes, fascinated him. He knew in what strange heavens they were suffering’ (Wilde 179). Dorian describing the grubby London can be illustrated like a colourful painting, using descriptive language with desire, drama and visual positioning among the overindulged men. The author also uses vivid imagery to portray a distorted beauty among the atrocious unpleasantness in the situation, since ordinary exquisiteness does not appeal to Dorian. [9: Matsuoka, Mitsuharu “Aestheticism and Social Anxiety in the Pictures’s of Dorian Gray.’Journal of Aesthetic Education 2003.] [bookmark: _Toc534117216][bookmark: _Toc534118259][bookmark: _Toc534118409][bookmark: _Toc534118482] Wilde’s Belief

Under some circumstances, Oscar Wilde foretells a serious fault within his theory during the first get-together of Lord Henri and Dorian Gray. Henri KWotton desires for Dorian to value his attractiveness as he states, “someday, when passion [has] branded your lips… you will feel [regret]” (Wilde 24). Accurate towards the Lord’s expectation, the young boy abandoned and ‘branded’ his way of life that he follows. Concurrently, Lord Henri has faith in his conspiracy theory yet, he is left undamaged. Where chasing exquisiteness keeps Lord Henri pessimistic, it manages to push Dorian to insanity. [bookmark: _Toc534117217][bookmark: _Toc534118260][bookmark: _Toc534118410][bookmark: _Toc534118483]Conclusion

In what ways is Victorian Ideology Imposed upon in The Pictures’ of Dorian Gray? Oscar Wilde and his narrative composed in the late 1800s, The Pictures’ of Dorian Gray, recurrently bestows philosophies which openly impose the Victorian agenda of the period. Wilde constantly seems to contest the idea that craft contains an ethical resolve to it. It also praises a way of life consisting of leniency and debauchery, clearly undermining the Victorian obsession of morality, integrity, and self-restraint. Therefore, with this theory of debauchery and Aestheticismicle in the story, the author offers a viewpoint with ethical values which questions the philosophies of Victorian culture. In modern days, The Pictures’ of Dorian Gray may be considered to be another old generic narrative, though, throughout its publication, the novel served as a considerably above purpose among the Victorian dogma. Oscar Wilde’s story organized a revolt on craft and of the freedom of speech, though one of these was met with dangerous but revolutionary controversial ideas. Wilde as a novelist created a guide for his equals to craft beautiful artistic works, tethered due to the firm and strict principles of the Victorian rule.

Works Cited

  1. “Art for the Sake of Art – Modern Art Terms and Concepts.” The Art Story, Modern Art Insight, www.theartstory.org/definition-art-for-art.htm.
  2. Benson, Peter. “Wilde and Morality (Issue 65).” Philosophy Now: a Magazine of Ideas, 2008, philosophynow.org/issues/65/Wilde-and-Morality.
  3. Birch, T., 1772, The Works of the Honourable Robert Boyle, Thomas Birch, (ed.), 6 vols. (London, 1772; reprinted Hildesheim: George Olms, 1966), a reprinting of the five-volume 1744 edition.
  4. Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. “Aestheticismicle.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 26 Oct. 2018, www.britannica.com/art/Aestheticisme
  5. Burdett, Carolyn. “Aestheticismicle and Decadence.” The British Library, The British Library, 17 Feb. 2014, www.bl.uk/romantics-and-victorians/articles/Aestheticismicle-and-decadence.
  6. Ellis, Havelock. “The Contemporary Science Series .” Full Text of ‘Passing’, London : F. Warne ; New York : Scribner, Welford, and Armstrong, 1772, archive.org/stream/physiognomyexpre00mantuoft/physiognomyexpre00mantuoft_djvu.txt.
  7. Huszar, George De. “Nietzsches Theory of Decadence and the Transvaluation of All Values.” Journal of the History of Ideas, vol. 6, no. 3, 1945, p. 259., doi:10.2307/2707290.
  8. Matsuoka, Mitsuharu “Aestheticismicle and Social Anxiety in the Picture of Dorian Gray” Journal of Aesthetic Education 2003.
  9. Nevile, Jill, and Oscar Wilde. The Picture of Dorian Gray. Oxford University Press, 2008.

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