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Principles of Alternative Energy Analysis

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In this report I will be researching and gathering research on the different types of alternative energy. I will be looking into how each renewable and non-renewable energy technologies operate, and I will compare both energy technologies to see how they operate and what environmental issues and benefactors are produced by both technologies.

Operating Principles and sustainable energy factors of Renewable energy Technologies

Wind Turbines

Wind is a form of kinetic energy, when It comes to kinetic energy the goal is to convert kinetic energy into an electrical energy. We can achieve this by using a generator also known as “Faraday’s Law”.

This law will convert rotational kinetic energy into what’s known as AC/DC (Alternative and Direct) currents. When we convert the linear motion of wind into rotational kinetic energy this is then used to turn the wind turbines blades. The turbines blades will then generate a rotational force due to the pressure difference. Wind power is a clean energy source that can be relied upon for a long and green future due harmful chemical polluting the atmosphere, wind turbines create a reliable, cost effective pollution free energy. Wind turbines are affordable very clean and sustainable compared to fossil fuels.

A single wind turbine can generate enough electrical energy for one single household due to wind turbines being a non-polluted source of renewable energy, due to the major issue regarding fossil fuels and the need to saviour them it’s vital that wind turbines create their power without using our fossil fuels i.e. The fact wind turbines can work and operate without producing greenhouse gases, radioactive or toxic waste this is a major benefit for our planet.

Photovoltaic Systems

Photovoltaic systems also known as Solar panels will consist of a series of solar cells that will absorb the light produced from the sun and will convert the light harvested into DC Electricity.

Solar panels are built to last, they are designed and built to withstand the expose of harsh climate conditions that change depending on the season of the year, an example of this would could be freezing due to the high freezing temperatures, harsh and high winds, and snow storms. Solar energy is a renewable free source of energy that is completely sustainable and utterly inexhaustible, meaning solar panels will continue to convert into sun into free electricity without running out, this is beneficial because solar panels can harvest light from the sun and convert it into electricity for our planet.

If we compare solar energy to fossil fuels the main factor is that our fossil fuels are running out that is why solar energy is a major benefactor, our planet can help prevent the inexhaustible energy sources previously used by building and manufacturing more Photovoltaic systems. Solar panels will typically convert 16% of solar energy into electrical power.

Solar Panels are a renewable CO2 totally free power source, Solar panels have many environmental benefits and play a huge part on the impacts we have with the environment. Solar panels only impact the environment on a small scale compared to other non-renewable types of energy, the impact which they have on the environment is due to the production of solar panels, the materials used and metals to construct solar panels will cause harm to the environment but on a smaller scale.

The Government hope to help climate change using Solar energy, solar panels are being installed across the UK, and because of this the government hope to reduce all emissions by 2050 by up to 80%. Solar panels can generate between 700 and 900 units (kilowatt-hours, kWh) of electricity per year. A solar Panel that is a 3.5kW south-facing domestic system will produce about 3,000kWh per year.

Hydro-electrical systems

From 2017 hydro power approximately accounts for 1.8% of Britain’s electricity supply that is roughly 18% of our renewable energy.

Hydroelectricity power is a renewable energy due to electricity. Hydro systems will generate electricity by using the flow of the running water which comes from the rivers surrounding hydro systems or man-made systems such as reservoirs.

When it comes to turning the waters power into electricity this will require the use of turbines that will then convert the kinetic energy into mechanical energy, then a generator will turn it into electricity for consumers e,g, householders. Hydro systems are very efficient, reliable and sustainable, hydro power generation will rely on a constant flow of running water, meaning hydro systems can generate energy 24 hours a day. Hydro turbines can convert up to 90% of the kinetic energy of the water into electrical power this statistic makes hydro systems the most efficient source of renewable energy.

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Hydro systems are the most sustainable source of renewable energy since other types of renewable energies depend on weather conditions. Hydro systems are very low in cost the cost to generate the water is free and is a natural resource the only cost comes from the installation of hydro systems. Hydro systems can store the energy generated in very large quantities this is then used when needed due to being transferred into a grid, hydro systems are the only renewable energy source that can store large amounts of energy.

Combined heat and power (CHP)

Combined heat and power is very efficient, it is a process that will capture and utilise the heat that is produced and given off from the electricity generation process, when we combine both heat and power continuously we can reduce the total carbon emissions by up to 30% this statistic is compared to other sources inside domestic dwellings i.g. boilers.

When the heat is generated in the process it is then supplied to a heat supply that is at the same heat, CHP systems are very efficient this is because CHP takes advantage of the heat which would normally be lost and wasted when we generate electricity. The benefit with CHP is that by using the heat it cuts out the need to use fossil fuels, otherwise if we did not use the heat produced, we would have to the already exhausted non-renewable energy sources. CHP will allow companies and organisations to reduce the overall cost of energy supply and will protect the environment from polluting the atmosphere and contaminating wildlife.

Comparison between Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy

The total amount of electricity generated in the United Kingdom in 2018 was only 33%. However, in 2019 the total renewable electricity percentage in 2019 was 37.4% this statistic was taken from January and March 4.9% of renewables dropped in generation, renewables such as hydro, solar and bio-mas made the statistics increase.

This chart shows that the fossil fuels being used has reduced by up to 50%, the benefit of this is that more people are resisting the need to use fossil fuels are heading towards renewable energy technologies such as wind turbines, bio-mas, hydro systems. 39% of electricity was produced by coal, oil and gas. We can see that renewable energy was at 40% which included 20% from wind, 12 from bio-mass and 6% from solar and nuclear at 19%.

Over the years more issues have been raised about Global warming and the amount of CO2 emissions being produced, by adapting and using renewable energy technologies such as solar panels we can harvest the suns light to create free electricity. The major difference between non renewable and renewable energy is that the fossil fuels we are currently using will run out if we don’t stop exhausting our resources, this is where renewable energy technologies are more advanced, the worrying aspect is that when we keep burning fossil fuels at this current rate, “it is estimated that all our fossil fuels will be depleted by 2060.” Our generation are exhausting the fossil fuels that we currently have, and the planet is seeing the impacts its causing worldwide, that is why the government are pushing to use renewable energy sources because of the future.

the Government plan to make a “greener” “healthier” world for our future generation by using renewable energy technologies are using less power for example by not burning coal or releasing toxic dangerous fumes out of power plants and factories we are conserving the earths natural resources that were delivered and removed from the earth we also protect the ecosystems by no allowing our atmosphere to get polluted from all the fumes. By eliminating or decreasing the amount of emissions commercial and industrial buildings produce we can project the air quality that is vital to human life and wellbeing, due to factories and power plants burning fossil fuels they put toxic emissions up into the atmosphere the toxic gases include Carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide.

Advanced Renewable Technologies

Biomass is a great renewable energy source, what biomass refers to materials such as wood and waste that have living organisms. Biomass is a renewable energy source which mainly comes from plants, due to the planet needing plants and trees to survive we will have an endless energy supply without causing damage to the environment, biomass helps tackle climate change by reducing the total amount of green house gas emissions, biomass does produce CO2 but once the gas is released it doesn’t cause damage to the atmosphere.

Biomass energy is available on a large wide scale, this is a huge benefit over using fossil fuels, the fact that biomass is located everywhere its easily sourced and can be used quickly and will less effort than gathering resources from fossil fuels. The population of the world will forever get bigger and expand and if we keep using fossil fuels to burn the waste we will cause more damage to the environment this is where biomass has another great benefit due to biomass being created from living organisms in things such as wastage and wood we can use biomass to feed off the wastage produced from the expansive growth of the population. By using what’s given to our planet we can source our own energy from the waste that we produce that way the waste doesn’t go to landfill and contaminate the soil.

Wave energy can be summed up to be a source of power that will be produced from the endless bundle of the waves as they roll into the shore then back out again. Oceanic wave power converts the ocean waves into electricity, this is done by placing equipment that is designed in the ocean specially to capture the movement of the waves and then once it captures the waves it will covert It into power. With oceanic wave power there is only one main technology used which is based on oscillating movement of the sea (repeats its self in motions). “The device will utilise the continuous up and down wave movement on the ocean’s surface which is mainly caused by the sun and the heat transferring energy as they move.”

Wave energy can also be a form of wind energy because of the captured movement of the water which is on the surface on the oceans floor and by capturing this energy from the motion of the waves is then converted into mechanical energy and then us used to power and electrical generator. Environmental benefactors of Wave energy; They are renewable, one of the main features with wave energy is that wave energy will never exhaust or run out. This is beneficial because there will always be washes hitting up against the shore. The waves flow back from the shore, but they always return. Unlike fossil fuels, which are running out.

Waves are environmentally friendly unlike fossil fuels, due to the factor of the power being created from the waves also no dangerous or harmful gases, toxins or pollution is produced from waves, the energy that is produced can be directly taken and converted into electricity this type of energy is clean due to it being natural and can be used to power generators and used in power stations instead of burning fossil fuels they could use the electricity and energy which is sourced for free.

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Principles of Alternative Energy Analysis. (2022, September 15). Edubirdie. Retrieved February 6, 2023, from
“Principles of Alternative Energy Analysis.” Edubirdie, 15 Sept. 2022,
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