Every project is unique in its process system, in a broader aspect there is no fundamental error in construction projects, however, most of the projects deviate from the time span or the cost-effectiveness and faces many unusual challenges based on area, circumstances, climate, socio-economic altercations or environmental situations(Hubbard, 1990). The range of complexity of a construction project cannot be realised just by a practical understanding of the nature of projects or by mere academical approach. This is the venue of project management where the success is determined by codifying the capability and skills of the project Management division.
This review paper assesses the main complexity in the workflow of a project and the key factors needed to overcome the complex, ambiguous and uncertain nature of construction projects(Chan, Scott and Chan, 2004). Here the interdependencies of the organisation, the project management office, and the project managers, their conduct, and active interference in the management of a project is described on rational grounds using key performance indicators and their core competencies in implementing a project successfully are described. Project Management competency is not a single entity, but a configured outcome of Organisational, Project management office, and Project manager competencies (Hamel, 1994) alongside drive the success of the project.
Competencies in the construction industry
a. Organisational Competency
The competency of project management is directly dependent on the culture and structure of the organisation and its vitality in process and innovation. This achievement in the construction industry depends on the management of resources of the corporate industry, its allocation, and the nature of (Jaselskis and Ashley, 1991). A company might be engaged in many projects at the same time, over different geographical areas and by different self-governing project leaders at their helm. Hence, every project depends on the policy and decision making of the company, moreover the success of the projects is fundamentally influenced by the appropriate management techniques of the company itself (Munns AK, Bjeirmi BF). The corporate strengths can be attributed to three main criteria’s which are resources and capabilities, strategic approaches and relationship with parties(Chan, Scott and Chan, 2004).
Resources and capabilities are an assemblage of few tangible and intangible factors(Barney, 1991), Financial competency, technological competency, leadership, experience, Image of the company, research and development, innovative competency: Strategic decisions of a company mean, the attitude and response of the organisation, its Project Management Office, project managers, and staff members in a work atmosphere. Differentiation, potential market selection competence, strategies in project management, investment strategies, management strategies as an Organisation (Warszawski, 1996).
For a construction company, the strength of the relationship with major social factors is too relevant that decides the project management capabilities and seamless flow of projects to success. These major factors that can affect a construction project are relationships with Clients, trade unions, and with the government (Pmi, 2002). This can be portrayed with the structural equation modeling which influences a construction project fig 1(Tabri and Elliott, 2012).
Competencies of the Project Management Office(PMO)
The study interprets nine characteristic competencies that are identified as relevant for the success of a construction project(Project Management Institute, 2008). Apart from the success factors such as communication, feedback, control, project organisation, planning, scheduling and management experience, project management competencies are possible project success factors(Chua, Kog and Loh, 1999).
Schedule management: As by the name, it essentially means the time span of the project. The processes, activities, estimation, planning, development and control. A project manager in charge must be aware of the potential delays and conflicts that might occur on course(Project Management Institute, 2008).
Cost management. A consistent cost effectiveness is necessary for the investment on the project and it basically involves planning, estimating, budgeting and controlling the project costs.
Quality Management: This includes quality planning, quality assurance and quality control. The term total quality management (TQM) refers to the successful management of the construction projects. This happens when a firm is adaptive to its quality culture and frequently evaluating the principles of the company itself.
Human resource management: In construction industry manpower is the prime resource and success is determined by the coordination and competency of the people in this industry. The main objective of the human resource management is to manage and categorise the work force.
Risk Management: Risk features as complexity, ambiguity and uncertainty in construction industry. The main purpose of a project manager is to identify the risk chances in advance and maintain the quality, productivity, budget, and performance. These risks can be transferred, minimised or shared(Raz, Shenhar and Dvir, 2002).
Supply chain management: According to public sector construction firms in UK, including the Latham report and the Egan report underline the necessity of improving the supply chain. It is the flow of materials and information from the owner, consultant, contractor, subcontractor and suppliers in the construction sector. The smooth communication between the elements of the supply chain prioritises the success of projects.
Claims management: In the construction industry mainly refers to the terms and agreements between clients, consultants, owners, contractors and other contributors. There will be contracts and terms of agreement which need to be vivid and on understanding terms(Project Management Institute, 2008)
Knowledge competency: Here the business improvement means more client satisfaction which can be obtained by innovation and strategical approaches towards a project. The company need to be capable to rise to the standards of the best practices
Health and safety management: It is a very important project management competency where a safe working environment is created with specifications and guidelines to follow and it also means the training of the workers and staff with the up-to-date technologies (Ringen, Seegal and Englund, 1995).
Competencies and skills of a project manager
Projects are the foundations of the construction business and the project manager plays as a tool to operate the projects using strategies and emerging techniques with adaptive competencies and skills as an individual (Munns and Bjeirmi, 1996). Fundamentally, the success of a construction project depends on the key knowledge, skills and competencies of the project managers (Edum-Fotwe and McCaffer, 2000). Along with the Organisation and PMO competencies the PM’s key skills are highly valuable for the success of projects in construction.
A credent Mapping of project Infrastructure
While explaining the competencies of a construction project management, it is impossible to ignore the state of world and its nature of ambiguity, complexity and uncertainty. Managing projects means the project team must identify various aspects. Initially, it must clear the adequacy and ambiguity or complexity moreover, the project team should consider the true context of transition mapping. Also, the payoff effects on a particular action can be examined with experience (Sobek, Ward and Liker, 1999). The strategies of project management are relevant in the successful completion of a project.
The review entitles the literary aspects towards the construction project management competencies. The success factor of every project is directly dependent on the key competent nature of the company, it’s management of projects and the capabilities of the project managers. While explaining the lifecycle of a project that starts with initiation, then planning, designing, execution, monitoring, and ends with closing, the necessity of a project management system for the success of projects and its effectiveness is clearly stated in this review. To understand the core competencies of the project management a critical mapping of the project infrastructure is explained with the fundamental strategies relevant in a project lifecycle. Here, the core competencies of the Organisation, Projects, and Project managers are elaborated with key performance factors and derived innate for the success competency.