Penglipuran Village is located about 6 kilometers from Bangli City, and 1 kilometer from Kubu Village, Penglipuran is one of the quietest, cleanest and most peaceful villages in the entire country, and one of the three cleanest overall in the world. Untouched by modernization. The reason the author chose to research Penglipuran village tourism is to inform the reader about how Penglipuran villagers maintain the cleanliness of the village. Then also for the reader to know that there is one of the cleanest villages in Indonesia, namely in Bali, more precisely in the village of Penglipuran through this research. In order to complete this research, the writer does the following steps: (1) The author visited the Penglipuran village in Bali and saw firsthand the activities in the Penglipuran village. (2) The author records the explanation of the tour guide using a smartphone. the authors found various reasons why the Penglipuran village is still maintaining the cleanliness of its environment. Because the village of Penglipuran applies the ‘Triditegarani’ guideline. Triditegarani is a human relations with the creator, human relations with humans, and human relations with nature. Also the writer found out why Penglipuran village could be used as one of the attractions in the city of Bali. Because Penglipuran village meets tourism service requirements. The first is Something to see. Second is Something to do and the last is Something to buy.
Penglipuran Village is located about 6 kilometers from Bangli City, and 1 kilometer from Kubu Village, Penglipuran is one of the quietest, cleanest and most peaceful villages in the entire country, and one of the three cleanest overall in the world. Untouched by modernization. Penglipuran Village is the cleanest village in Java – Bali or even in Indonesia because there are no vehicles allowed to enter the village area, certainly pollution free and still very Balinese, ‘Bali Ageung’.
Some interpreted that the name Penglipuran was once a place for ‘penglipur lara’ or to console the grieving hearts of the kings. Because Bali used to be led by kings. If the kings want to relax or refreshing, they will go to Penglipuran village because it is located at the top of a cool place.
And according to mythology and testimony of the elders, the name Penglipuran comes from “Pengeling Pura”, which means remembering ancestors. It was said that the village was created solely to honor their ancestors ‘in Kintamani’, which is why Penglipuran is one of the villages in Bali where people regularly make offerings and hold rituals to honor mythological spirits and some others say’ Pangleng ‘and’ Pura ‘, which means four temples at each compass point (as cited in Indonesia Portal Infomasi, 2019).
The beginning was one of the royal family built a house there for a place to live. When they want to cheer up or refresh, they do not have to go too far. They made another house together, working together one by one to produce around 70 houses. Even now the house is still as it is today although there is a little that has been modernized but it does not eliminate the Bali style. As in the past the roof used bamboo which was turned over but now it is wearing roof tiles. Although there is already provided bamboo forest next to his village, specifically to improve their homes and they do not need to buy more, but the “Angkleng-Angkleng” or gate in front of his house are still like that from ancient times.
Therefore, the researcher would like to analyze Penglipuran village by using the tourism theory. In general, Tourism is a trip that is carried out by someone within a certain period of time from one place to another by planning ahead, the purpose is for recreation or for an interest that desires can be fulfilled. Or tourism can also be interpreted as a trip from one place to another for recreation and then back to its original place (as cited N, SORA, 2017).
According to the above tourism terminology, it can be concluded that tourism can be formed if there are tourism actors (demand) who indeed have the motivation to travel, availability of supporting infrastructure, the existence of tourism objects and tourist attractions that are supported by a good promotion and marketing system and service to the actors travel (supply) (as cited in Hestanto, 2018).
According to UU RI No. 9 of 1990 concerning Tourism, it is stated that tourist objects and attractions are all things that are targeted for tourism both the development of tourist objects and attractions, which is carried out by means of trying, managing and making new objects as objects and power tourist attraction (as cited in Basahona, A, 2016). In the above law, which includes tourist objects and attractions consists of: (1) Tourist objects and attractions created by God Almighty, in the form of natural conditions and flora and fauna. (2) Tourism objects and attractions of human works in the form of museums, ancient relics, historical relics, cultural arts, agriculture (agro tourism), tirta tourism (water), adventure tourism, recreational parks, and entertainment venues. (3) Special interest tourism targets, such as: hunting, climbing mountains, caves, industry and crafts, shopping places, fast-flowing rivers, places of worship, places of pilgrimage.
According to Yoeti (1992) Tourism is a trip that is carried out for a while, which is held from one place to another, with the intention not to try or make a living in the place he visited, but merely to enjoy the trip for sightseeing and recreational equipment to fulfill diverse desires.
Another definition according to Yoeti (2008) tourist attraction is an object or tourist attraction that can be offered to tourists they want to visit a particular country or Tourism Destination Area. Broadly speaking there are three groups that are an attraction for tourists coming to a tourist destination country, namely: (1). Natural Attractions, This group is a landscape, seascape, beaches, lakes, waterfalls, national parks, agrotourism, volcanoes, including if in this group is fauna and flora. (2). Build Attractions, Included in buildings with interesting architects, such as traditional houses and which include modern buildings such as Opera Building (Sydney), Jam Gadang (Bukittinggi), Taman Mini Indonesia Indah (TMII). (3). Cultural Attractions, This group includes historical heritage (historic building), folklore, traditional arts (traditional dances), museums, religious ceremonies, art festivals.
The reason the author chose to research Penglipuran village tourism is to inform the reader about how Penglipuran villagers maintain the cleanliness of the village. Then also for the reader to know that there is one of the cleanest villages in Indonesia, namely in Bali, more precisely in the village of Penglipuran through this research. Researchers use the theory of tourism Oka A. Yoeti because the theory is related to the topic that the researcher wants to analyze.
The type of the research is descriptive qualitative research, in which the method is used to collects the data, classifies and analyze them, and then draw the the coclusion from the analyzed data.
The data source of the research is documentation and recording. The researcher took several pictures of Penglipuran village and recorded the tour guide when explaining about Penglipuran village.
In a research, the writer must collecting data to support and to get the source of the research. The process of collecting data must be systematically done in order to get accurate data. The writer use the observation method in this research. In order to complete this research, the writer does the following steps (1) The author visited the Penglipuran village in Bali and saw firsthand the activities in the Penglipuran village, (2) The author records the explanation of the tour guide using a smartphone.
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
Penglipuran Village is a village that can apply the Triditegarani guidelines. In Bali if we want to live well, we have to do three guidelines. Triditegarani is a human relations with the creator, human relations with humans, and human relations with nature. It is Penglipuran Village that can implement all three and the survey also proves it. This is one of the differences with other villages, because there must be those who only apply two, For example, human relations with the creator and human relations with humans or human relations with humans and human relations with nature. That is what makes Penglipuran village people keep their environment clean, because the people are very applying Triditegarani guidelines.
As Yoeti (2008) said that a tourist attraction is an object that can be offered to tourists who want to visit a country or tourist destination. Broadly speaking, to get the attraction of tourists who come to tourist destinations, there are three groups.
1. Natural Attractions
Penglipuran Village is the cleanest village that makes the nature very cool and fresh. And the layout at the top with lots of trees around the village adds to the coolness of the air. In every front yard of the houses of the people there, there are green grasses and colorful flowers that add a natural impression.
2. Build Attractions
The building in Penglipuran village is a Balinese style building which is not like in Java or like in urban Bali, because in the city the land is not too large, only has a minimalist house. To make a Balinese style house must have vast land. Between houses, bedrooms and living rooms must be separate from the kitchen and bathroom, then a typical Balinese house has three roofs. In front of the house there is a ‘Wantilan’ which is bale or hall for ceremonies.
In Penglipuran Village, there is an architectural rule called “awik-awik” to regulate all development procedures (as cited in Aulia, R. Ps, 2016). In the distribution of land allotment (spatial planning), Penglipuran Village adopts the Tri Mandala system, which is a spatial planning system divided into three allotment zones. The term comes from two words, ‘Tri’ and ‘Mandala’. Tri has the meaning ‘three’, while Mandala has the meaning ‘space’. That the etymological understanding can be interpreted from the two meanings of the word, namely ‘Three Spaces’. Or in its description, Tri Mandala is the division of spatial zones into three zones based on the level of cultural value status (tradition regulations), each of which has their respective functions in accordance with the status of the value held.
- a. Utama Mandala (Holy Place). This zone is the highest zone among the others. Located in the section closest to the mountain in the main zone located in the north. This zone is a temple where all the Penglipuran villagers worship. It was there that the villagers of Penglipuran carried out worship activities to “Hayang Widhi” who was believed to be their Lord.
- b. Madya Mandala (Family Home). This zone is a place that is considered middle, between “Utama” and “Nista” which are used as residents’ residences. The main houses in Penglipuran Village are 76 houses divided by 38 main roads on each side of the road. Numbering uses a modern system, with odd numbers on the east side of the road, while even numbered houses are on the west side of the road. The house number is placed at the gate or “angkleng-angkleng” along with an information board that shows the condition of the occupants of the house, namely the name of the head of the family, the number of male occupants, the number of female occupants and a description of the occupants.
- c. Nista Mandala. This zone has the lowest level among the other zones. Located in the part closest to the sea, in the village of Penglipuran the Nista zone is in the southern part. Therefore, this zone is a burial complex.
3. Cultural Attractions
Penglipuran has several cultures or traditions, the traditions are :
a. Besides being prohibited from littering because Penglipuran village is the cleanest village and to keep it clean. In Penglipuran village, it has a very unique traditions that is prohibited from polygamy. If there is a violation of this tradition, then men who have two wives will be isolated or deported, there is a special place for residents who violate the tradition, which is located next to a bamboo forest called ‘Rumah Karang Memadu’. However, until now Karang Memadu’s house has not been inhabited, because if there is anyone who has been isolated or deported then surely someone will feel ashamed. That is for the original people of Bali in the village of Penglipuran.
b. It is forbidden to throw rubbish in Penglipuran village that depends on our own morals where the village is clean it is impossible for us who still have morals to litter there, if anyone does it, that person will be given an understanding. In addition to tradition men who have two wives must be isolated or deported to Karang Memadu’s house. Penglipuran Village also has another tradition, which is the person who steals. According to tradition in Penglipuran village, people found stealing something there will be given a pretty heavy sanction, namely the perpetrator must provide offerings and must sacrifice black animals. Perpetrators will also be paraded around the village, only around Penglipuran village. It aims to make the perpetrators feel ashamed and deterrent from doing the same thing anywhere and so that the community in the village of Penglipuran feel safe and secure living there.
Tourist Service is all facilities used and activities carried out where the procurement is provided by other companies commercially. To be a good tourist destination, we must develop three things, namely: Something to see, is everything that is interesting to see. Something to do, that is an activity that can be carried out in that place. And something to buy, is anything that is interesting or has its own characteristics to be bought (as cited in Landoala, T, 2013)
The first ‘Something to see’ in Penglipuran village there are around 200 residents with 70 families because only 1 village. Even they houses, from house 1 to house 70 has the same flat building and the same shape. The front gate of the house called ‘angkleng-angkleng’ is all the same and from house 1 to house 70 it all connects. If they want to go to the neighbor’s house, they do not even have to go out through the gate, but they can go straight to the neighbor’s house through the back door. That the style of the Balinese house. And that is the uniqueness that we can see.
The second ‘Something to do’ in the village of Penglipuran we can do anything like capture the moment there, chat with the people in the village, even we can see inside the houses of the villagers. It is intended that tourists can see firsthand what a typical Balinese house looks like.
And the last is ‘Something to buy’, there is not too crowded because those who live in the village of Penglipuran only dadong-dadong or mbah-mbah or peka-peka. Most of them are old people who live there. To fulfill the economy of the people there, they were allowed to open a small stall in front of their house, selling some trinkets, food and drinks and souvenirs typical of Bali. Penglipuran Village also has a typical Penglipuran village drink, which is ‘Loloh Cemcem’ made from cemcem leaves and priced at only 5,000 rupias.
The results of this study are that the authors found various reasons why the Penglipuran village is still maintaining the cleanliness of its environment. Because the village of Penglipuran applies the ‘Triditegarani’ guideline, which means that human relations with the creator, human relations with humans, and human relations with nature. That the village of Penglipuran remains clean and the air is fresh because of the human relationship with nature they still maintain well.
Also the writer found out why Penglipuran village could be used as one of the attractions in the city of Bali. Because Penglipuran village has the proper tourist service. The first, “Something to see’ in the village has a very unique building. Second, ‘Something to do’ the tourists can enter the Penglipuran village house which aims to tell that the traditional Balinese house is like the one in Penglipuran village. And the last thing is ‘something to buy’ because in order to fulfill the economy of the community, the government allows Penglipuran villagers to open a small shop in front of their homes by selling various kinds of Balinese souvenirs and this Penglipuran village has a special drink from the village, namely ‘ Loloh Cemcem’ made from Cemcem leaves.
- N, SORA (2017, April 15). Rangkuman Pariwisata dan Jenis-Jenisnya Lengkap. Retrieved from website : http://www.pengertianku.net/2017/04/pengertian-pariwisata-dan-jenis-jenisnya.html
- Oka A. Yoeti. 1992. Pengantar Ilmu Pariwisata, Jakarta : Pradnya Paramita.
- Oka A. Yoeti. 2008. Ekonomi Pariwisata: Introduksi, Informasi, dan Implementasi. Penerbit Kompas. Jakarta
- Landoala, T (2013, September 11). Teori Kepariwisataan. Retrieved from website : http://jembatan4.blogspot.com/2013/09/teori-kepariwisataan.html?m=1
- Indonesia Portal Infomasi (2019, January 14). Udara Desa Penglipuran Terbersih di Dunia. Retrieved from website : https://indonesia.go.id/ragam/pariwisata/sosial/udara-desa-penglipuran-terbersih-di-dunia
- Aulia, R. Ps, (2016, July 20). Sistem Tata Ruang Desa Adat Penglipuran. Retrieved from website : http://rizkaauliaps.blogspot.com/2016/07/sistem-tata-ruang-desa-adat-penglipuran.html
- Basahona, A, (2016, July 19). Pengertian Objek Wisata. Retrieved from website : https://www.atobasahona.com/2016/07/pengertian-objek-wisata.html
- Hestanto (2018). Definisi Pariwisata (indikator, perkembangan, Objek dan daya tarik). Retrieved from website : https://www.hestanto.web.id/definisi-pariwisata-indikator-perkembangan-objek-dan-daya-tarik/